Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Theories of Cognition and Depression in Multiple Sclerosis and Guillain–Barré Syndrome

  • Peter A. Arnett
  • Fiona H. Barwick
  • Joseph E. Beeney


The most commonly seen and studied demyelinating disorder in medical neuropsychology is multiple sclerosis (MS). As such, most of this chapter will focus on MS. Because Guillain–Barré syndrome is the most common demyelinating disorder of the peripheral nervous system, the limited neuropsychological data on this disorder will be reviewed in a brief section at the end.


Multiple sclerosis Demyelinating disorders Neuropsychology Cognitive functioning Affective neuroscience Depression Guillain–Barré syndrome 



We express our gratitude to the MS participants and their significant others who have contributed their time in our studies to helping us to better understand the nature of multiple sclerosis.


  1. 1.
    Rao SM. Neuropsychology of multiple sclerosis: a critical review. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1986;8:503–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tröster AI, Arnett PA. Assessment of movement and demyelinating disorders. In: Snyder PJ, Nussbaum PD, Robins DL, editors. Clinical neuropsychology: a pocket handbook for assessment. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: The American Psychological Association; 2006. pp. 243–93.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arnett PA, Smith MM. Cognitive functioning and everyday tasks in multiple sclerosis. In: Grant I, Marcotte T, editors. The neuropsychology of everyday functioning. New York, NY: Guilford Press. 2010; pp. 357–88.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Noseworthy JH, Lucchinetti C, Rodriguez M, Weinshenker BG. Multiple sclerosis. N Eng J Med. 2000;343:938–52.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    McDonald WI, Compston A, Edan G, et al. Recommended diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: guidelines from the international panel on the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2001;50:121–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Polman CH, Reingold SC, Edan G, et al. Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2005 revisions to the "McDonald Criteria". Ann Neurol. 2005;58:840–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lublin FD, Reingold SC. Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis: results of an international survey. Neurology. 1996;46:907–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rao SM, Leo GJ, Ellington L, et al. Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. II. Impact on employment and social functioning. Neurology. 1991;41:692–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    DeLuca J, Gaudino EA, Diamond BJ, et al. Acquisition and storage deficits in multiple sclerosis. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1998;20:376–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Grafman J, Rao SM, Litvan I. Disorders of memory. In: Rao SM, editor. Neurobehavioral aspects of multiple sclerosis. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1990. pp. 102–17.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    DeLuca J, Barbieri-Berger S, Johnson SK. The nature of memory impairments in multiple sclerosis: aquisition versus retrieval. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1994;16:183–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thornton AE, Raz N. Memory impairment in multiple sclerosis: a quantitative review. Neuropsychology. 1997;11:356–7.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rey A. L‘examen Clinique en Psvchologie. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France; 1964.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hillary FG. Neuroimaging of working memory dysfunction and the dilemna with brain reorganization hypotheses. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2008;14:526–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Forn C, Barros-Loscertales A, Escudero J. Cortical reorganization during PASAT task in MS patients with preserved working memory functions. Neuroimage. 2006;31:686–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Penner I-K, Rausch M, Kappos L, et al. Analysis of impairment related functional architecture in MS patients during performance of different attention tasks. J Neurol. 2003;250:461–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Forn C, Barros-Loscertales A, Escudero J, et al. Cortical reorganization during PASAT task in MS patients with preserved working memory functions. Neuroimage. 2006;31:686–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Forn C, Barros-Loscertales A, Escudero J, et al. Compensatory activations in patients with multiple sclerosis during preserved performance on the auditory N-back task. Hum Brain Mapp. 2007;28:424–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hillary FG, Genova HM, Chiaravalloti ND, DeLuca J. Prefrontal modulation of working memory performance in brain injury and disease. Hum Brain Mapp. 2006;27:837–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chiaravalloti ND, Hillary FG, Ricker JH, et al. Cerebral activation patterns during working memory performance in multiple sclerosis using fMRI. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2005;27:33–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hillary FG, Chiaravalloti ND, Ricker JH, et al. An investigation of working memory rehearsal in multiple sclerosis using fMRI. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2003;25:965–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Braver TS, Cohen JD, Nystrom LE, et al. A parametric study of prefrontal cortex involvement in human working memory. Neuroimage. 1997;5:49–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D‘Esposito M, Aguirre GK, Zarahan E, et al. Functional MRI studies of spatial and nonspatial working memory. Cogn Brain Res. 1998;7:1–13.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rao SM, Leo GJ, Haughton VM, et al. Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with neuropsychological testing in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1989;39:161–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brass SD, Benedict RHB, Weinstock-Guttman B, et al. Cognitive impairment is associated with subcortical magnetic resonance imaging grey matter T2 hypointensity in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2006;12:437–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Benedict RHB, Bruce JM, Dwyer MG, et al. Neocortical atrophy, third ventricular width, and cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 2006;63:1301–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Arnett PA, Rao SM, Bernardin L, et al. Relationship between frontal lobe lesions and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1994;44:420–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Arnett PA. Longitudinal consistency of the relationship between depression symptoms and cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis. CNS Spectrums Int J Neuropsychiatr Med. 2005;10:372–82.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Landro NI, Celius EG, Sletvold H. Depressive symptoms account for deficient information processing speed but not for impaired working memory in early phase multiple sclerosis (MS). J Neurol Sci. 2004;217:211–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Arnett PA, Barwick FH, Beeney JE. Depression in multiple sclerosis: review and theoretical proposal. J. Int. Neuropsychol Soc. 2008;14: 691–724.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Arnett PA, Higginson CI, Voss WD, et al. Relationship between coping, depression, and cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Clin Neuropsychol. 2002;16:341–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Krupp LB, Elkins LE. Fatigue and declines in cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2000;55:934–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Benedict RHB, Munschauer FE, Linn R, et al. Screening for multiple sclerosis cognitive impairment using a self-administered 15-item questionnaire. Mult Scler. 2003;9:95–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Randolph JJ, Arnett PA, Higginson CI. Metamemory and tested cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis. Clin Neuropsychol. 2001;15:357–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rao SM, and the Cognitive Function Study Group of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society. Manual for the brief repeatable battery of neuropsychological tests in multiple sclerosis. New York, NY: National Multiple Sclerosis Society; 1990.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rao SM, Leo GJ, Bernardin L, Unverzagt F. Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. 1. Frequency, patterns, and prediction. Neurology. 1991;41:685–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Boringa JB, Lazeron RHC, Reuling IEW, et al. The brief repeatable battery of neuropsychological tests: normative values allow application in multiple sclerosis clinical practice. Mult Scler. 2001;7:263–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Benedict RHB, Fischer JS, Archibald CJ, et al. Minimal neuropsychological assessment of MS patients: a consensus approach. Clin Neuropsychol. 2002;16:381–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Benedict RHB, Cookfair D, Gavett R, et al. Validity of the minimal assessment of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis (MACFIMS). J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2006;12:549–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    The Psychological Corporation. WASI (wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence) manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation; 1999.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    The Psychological Corporation. Wechsler test of adult reading – manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation; 2001.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wilkinson GS, Robertson GJ. Wide range achievement test – 4, professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources Inc; 2006.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wechsler D. Wechsler memory scale. 3rd ed. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation; 1997.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wechsler D. Wechsler memory scale. 4th ed. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation; 2009.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wechsler D. Wechsler adult intelligence scale. 3rd ed. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation; 1997.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wechsler D. Wechsler adult intelligence scale. 4th ed. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation; 2008.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kaplan E, Goodglass H, Weintraub S. Boston naming test. 2nd ed. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed; 2001.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Henry JD, Beatty WW. Verbal fluency deficits in multiple sclerosis. Neuropsychologia. 2006;44:1166–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Arnett PA, Rao SM, Grafman J, et al. Executive functions in multiple sclerosis: an analysis of temporal ordering, semantic encoding, and planning abilities. Neuropsychology. 1997;11:535–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Foong J, Rozewicz L, Davie CA, et al. Correlates of executive function in multiple sclerosis: the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy as an index of focal pathology. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1999;11:45–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    The Psychological Corporation. The Wechsler test of adult reading (WTAR): test manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation; 2001.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Randolph JJ, Arnett PA, Higginson CI, Voss WD. Neurovegetative symptoms in multiple sclerosis: relationship to depressed mood, fatigue, and physical disability. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2000;15:387–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nyenhuis DL, Rao SM, Zajecka J, et al. Mood disturbance versus other symptoms of depression in multiple sclerosis. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 1995;1:291–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. BDI-Fast screen for medical patients manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation; 2000.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Benedict RHB, Fishman I, McClellan MM, et al. Validity of the beck depression inventory-fast screen in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2003;9:393–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bruce JM, Bruce AS, Arnett PA. Mild visual acuity disturbances are associated with performance on tests of complex visual attention in MS. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2007;13:544–8.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kent RD, Kent JF, Rosenbek JC. Maximum performance tests of speech production. J Speech Hear Disord. 1987;52:367–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Arnett PA, Smith MM, Barwick FH, et al. Oral motor slowing in multiple sclerosis: relationship to neuropsychological tasks requiring an oral response. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2008;14:454–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Smith MM, Arnett PA. Dysarthria predicts poorer performance on cognitive tasks requiring a speeded oral response in an MS population. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2007;29:804–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Flachenecker P, Kumpfel T, Kallmann B, et al. Fatigue in multiple sclerosis: a comparison of different rating scales and correlation to clinical parameters. Mult Scler. 2002;8:523–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Krupp LB, LaRocca NG, Muir-Nash J, Steinberg AD. The fatigue severity scale: application to patients with multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Arch Neurol. 1989;46:1121–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fisk JD, Pontefract A, Ritvo PG, et al. The impact of fatigue on patients with multiple sclerosis. Can J Neurol Sci. 1994;21:9–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kurtzke JF. Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: an expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Neurology. 1983;33:1444–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fischer JS, Rudick RA, Cutter GA, Reingold SC. The multiple sclerosis functional composite (MSFC): an integrated approach to MS clinical outcome assessment. Mult Scler. 1999;3:244–50.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Longley WA. Multiple sclerosis-related dementia: relatively rare and often misunderstood. Clin Pract Curr Opin. 2007;8:154–67.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kujala P, Portin R, Ruutiainen J. The progress of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis: a controlled 3-year follow-up. Brain. 1997;120:289–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Amato MP, Ponziani G, Siracusa G, Sorbi S. Cognitive dysfunction in early-onset multiple sclerosis: a reappraisal after 10 years. Arch Neurol. 2001;58:1602–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bobholz J, Rao S. Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: a review of recent developments. Curr Opin Neurol. 2003;16:283–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Achiron A, Polliack M, Rao SM, et al. Cognitive patterns and progression in multiple sclerosis: construction and validation of percentile curves. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:744–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Piras MR, Magnano I, Canu EDG, et al. Longitudinal study of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: neuropsychological, neuroradiological, and neurophysiological findings. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:878–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chelune GJ, Feisthamel K, Stone L. Assessing the prevalence and relative risk of cognitive dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis. Brain Impair. 2004;5(Suppl):77.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Calabresi PA. Diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis. Am Fam Physician. 2004;70:1935–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mayberg HS. Positron emission tomography imaging in depression: a neural systems perspective. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2003;13:805–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Parker G. Classifying depression: should paradigms lost be regained? Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:1195–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shenal BV, Harrison DW, Demaree HA. The neuropsychology of depression: a literature review and preliminary model. Neuropsychol Rev. 2003;13:33–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Heller W, Nitschke JB, Miller GA. Lateralization in emotion and emotional disorders. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 1998;7:26–32.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rabinowitz AR, Arnett PA. A longitudinal analysis of cognitive dysfunction, coping, and depression in multiple sclerosis. Neuropsychology. 2009;23:581–91.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Davidson RJ. Anterior brain asymmetry and the nature of emotion. Brain Cogn. 1992;20:125–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Davidson RJ, Pizzagalli D, Nitschke JB, Putnam K. Depression: perspectives from affective neuroscience. Ann Rev Psychol. 2002;53:545–74.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Heller W. Neuropsychological mechanisms of individual differences in emotion, personality, and arousal. Neuropsychology. 1993;7:476–89.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mayberg HS. Limbic-cortical dysregulation: a proposed model of depression. J Neuropsychiatry. 1997;9:471–81.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Coan JA, Allen JJ. Frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and mediator of emotion. Biol Psychol. 2004;67:7–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Heller W, editor. The neuropsychology of emotion: developmental patterns and implications of psychopathology. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1990.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sutton SK, Davidson RJ. Prefrontal brain asymmetry: a biological substrate of the behavioral approach and inhibition systems. Psychol Sci. 1997;8:204–10.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Borod JC, Koff E, Lorch MP, Nicholas M. The expression and perception of facial emotion in brain damaged patients. Neuropsychologia. 1986;30:827–44.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Tucker DM, Frederick SL, editors. Emotion and brain lateralization. New York, NY: Wiley; 1989.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Davidson RJ, Irwin W. The functional neuroanatomy of emotion and affective style. Trends Cogn Sci. 1999;3:11–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sperling RA, Guttmann CR, Hohol MJ, et al. Regional magnetic resonance imaging lesion burden and cognitive function in multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal study. Arch Neurol. 2001;58:115–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Debener S, Beaudecel A, Nessler D, et al. Is resting anterior EEG alpha asymmetry a trait marker for depression? Findings for healthy adults and clinically depressed patients. Neuropsychobiology. 2000;41:31–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Fleminger S. Left-sided Parkinson’s disease is associated with greater anxiety and depression. Psychol Med. 1991;21:629–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Robinson RG, Kubos KL, Starr LB, et al. Mood disorders in stroke patients: importance of location of lesion. Brain. 1984;107:81–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Davidson RJ. Cerebral asymmetry, emotion, and affective style. In: Davidson RJ, Hugdahl K, editors. Brain asymmetry. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 1995. pp. 361–87.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Robinson RG, Starr LB, Lipsy JR, et al. A two-year longitudinal study of poststroke mood disorders. In-hospital prognostic factors associated with six-month outcome. J Nerv Ment Disord. 1985;173:221–6.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Feinstein A, Roy P, Lobaugh N, et al. Structural brain abnormalities in multiple sclerosis patients with major depression. Neurology. 2004;62:586–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bakshi R, Czarnecki D, Shaikh ZA, et al. Brain MRI lesions and atrophy are related to depression in multiple sclerosis. Neuroreport. 2000;11:1153–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Arnett PA, Barwick FH, Beeney JE. Depression in multiple sclerosis: review and theoretical proposal. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2008;14:691–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Siegert RJ, Abernethy DA. Depression in multiple sclerosis: a review. J Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:469–75.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Heilman KM, Bowers D, Valenstein. E. Emotional disorders associated with neurological diseases. In: Heilman KM, Valenstein E, editors. Emotional disorders associated with neurological diseases. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1993. pp. 461–98.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Robinson RG, Parikh RM, Lipsy JR, Starkstein SE. Pathological laughing and crying following stroke: validation of a measurement scale and a double-blind treatment study. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150:286–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Minden SL, Schiffer RB. Depression and mood disorders in multiple sclerosis. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 1991;4:62–77.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Harmon-Jones E. Contributions from research on anger and cognitive dissonance to understanding the motivational functions of asymmetrical frontal brain activity. Biol Psychol. 2004;67:51–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Benesova Y, Niedermayerova I, Mechl M, Havlikova P. The relation between brain MRI lesions and depressive symptoms in multiple sclerosis. Bratislavské lekárske listy. 2003;104:174–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Berg D, Supprian T, Thomae J, et al. Lesion pattern in patients with multiple sclerosis and depression. Mult Scler. 2000;6:156–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Zorzon M, de Masi R, Nasuelli D, et al. Depression and anxiety in multiple sclerosis: a clinical and MRI study in 95 subjects. J Neurol. 2001;248:416–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mayberg HS, Brannan SK, Mahurin RK, et al. Cingulate function in depression: a potential predictor of treatment response. Neuroreport Int J Rapid Commun Res Neurosci. 1997;8:1057–61.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Santa Maria MP, Benedict RH, Bakshi R, et al. Functional imaging during covert auditory attention in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2004;218:9–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Au Duong MV, Boulanouar K, Audoin B, et al. Modulation of effective connectivity inside the working memory network in patients at the earliest stage of multiple sclerosis. Neuroimage. 2005;24:533–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Morgen K, Sammer G, Courtney SM, et al. Distinct mechanisms of altered brain activation in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neuroimage. 2007;37:937–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Charil A, Dagher A, Lerch JP, et al. Focal cortical atrophy in multiple sclerosis: relation to lesion load and disability. Neuroimage. 2007;34:509–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Cader S, Cifelli A, Abu-Omar Y, et al. Reduced brain functional reserve and altered functional connectivity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Brain. 2006;129:527–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Mohr DC, Boudewyn AC, Goodkin DE, et al. Comparative outcomes for individual cognitive-behavior therapy, supportive-expressive group psychotherapy, and sertraline for the treatment of depression in multiple sclerosis. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001;69:1–8.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Mohr DC, Goodkin DE. Treatment of depression in multiple sclerosis: review and meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Sci Pract. 1999;6:1–9.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    McIvor GP, Riklan M, Reznikoff M. Depression in multiple sclerosis as a function of length and severity of illness, age, remissions, and perceived social support. J Clin Psychol. 1984;40:1028–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ritvo PG, Fisk JD, Archibald CJ, et al. Psychosocial and neurological predictors of mental health in multiple sclerosis patients. J Clin Epidemiol. 1996;49:467–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    McCabe MP, McKern S, McDonald E. Coping and psychological adjustment among people with multiple sclerosis. J Psychosom Res. 2004;56:355–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Schwartz L, Kraft GH. The role of spouse responses to disability and family environment in multiple sclerosis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1999;78:525–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    King KE, Arnett PA. Predictors of dyadic adjustment in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2005;11:700–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Feinstein A. An examination of suicidal intent in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2002;59:674–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Figved N, Myhr K-M, Larsen J-P, Aarsland D. Caregiver burden in multiple sclerosis: the impact of neuropsychiatric symptoms. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:1097–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Hughes RC, Cornblath DR. Guillain-Barré syndrome. The Lancet. 2005;366:1653–66.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Burns TM. Guillain-Barré syndrome. Semin Neurol. 2008;28:152–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Neppe VM. Differential cerebral cortical responsiveness examination in minimally conscious versus persistent vegetative states: a new role for neuropsychiatry and behavioral neurology. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2007;19:478–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Ragazzoni A, Grippo A, Tozzi F, Zaccara G. Event-related potentials in patients with total locked-in state due to fulminant Guillain-Barré syndrome. Int J Psychophysiol. 2000;37:99–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kotchoubey B, Lang S, Bostanov V, Birbaumer N. Cortical processing in Guillain-Barré syndrome after years of total immobility. J Neurol. 2003;250:1121–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Liu CY, Kao CD, Chen JT, et al. Hydrocephalus associated with Guillain-Barré Syndrome. J Clin Neurosci Case Rep. 2006;13:866–9.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter A. Arnett
    • 1
  • Fiona H. Barwick
    • 1
  • Joseph E. Beeney
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations