Epidemiology of Cancer Recurrence, Second Primary Cancer, and Comorbidity Among Cancer Survivors

Chapter

Abstract

Several definitions of cancer survivor have been proposed [1]. This chapter uses the modified National Cancer Institute (NCI) definition of cancer survivor as any one who has a history of cancer diagnosis and has completed the primary treatment. The long-term cancer survivors refer to those who have survived for 5 or more years.

Keywords

Fatigue Obesity Arthritis Depression Lymphoma 

References

  1. 1.
    Feuerstein M. Defining cancer survivorship. J Cancer Surviv. 2007;1(1):5–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Altekruse S, Kosary C, Krapcho M, Neyman N, Aminou R, Waldron W, Ruhl J, Howlader N, Tatalovich Z, Cho H, Mariotto A, Eisner M, Lewis D, Cronin K, Chen H, Feuer E, Stinchcomb D, Edwards Be. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2007, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2007/, based on November 2009 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2010.
  3. 3.
    Curtis R, Freedman D, Ron E, Ries L, Hacker D, Edwards B, Tucker M, and Fraumeni JJe. New malignancies among cancer survivors: SEER Cancer Registries, 1973–2000. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. NIH Publ. No. 05-5302; 2006.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yabroff KR, Lawrence WF, Clauser S, Davis WW, Brown ML. Burden of illness in cancer survivors: findings from a population-based national sample. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96(17):1322–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yancik R, Wesley MN, Ries LA, Havlik RJ, Edwards BK, Yates JW. Effect of age and comorbidity in postmenopausal breast cancer patients aged 55 years and older. JAMA. 2001;285(7):885–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yu X, McBean AM, Virnig BA. Physician visits, patient comorbidities, and mammography use among elderly colorectal cancer survivors. J Cancer Surviv. 2007;1(4):275–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hewitt M, Rowland JH, Yancik R. Cancer survivors in the United States: age, health, and disability. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003;58(1):82–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hewitt M, Greenfield S, Stovall E, editors. From cancer patient to cancer suvivor: lost in transition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Oeffinger KC, Mertens AC, Sklar CA, Kawashima T, Hudson MM, Meadows AT, et al. Chronic health conditions in adult survivors of childhood cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(15):1572–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Landier W, Bhatia S. Cancer survivorship: a pediatric perspective. Oncologist. 2008;13(11):1181–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Robison LL, Armstrong GT, Boice JD, Chow EJ, Davies SM, Donaldson SS, et al. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: a National Cancer Institute-supported resource for outcome and intervention research. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(14):2308–18.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Feuerstein M, editor. Handbook of cancer survivorship. New York: Springer; 2007, xix, 504 p.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ganz PA, editor. Cancer survivorship, today and tomorrow. 1st ed. New York: Springer; 2007.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mandelblatt JS, Cronin KA, Bailey S, Berry DA, de Koning HJ, Draisma G, et al. Effects of mammography screening under different screening schedules: model estimates of potential benefits and harms. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(10):738–47.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fakih MG, Padmanabhan A. CEA monitoring in colorectal cancer. What you should know. Oncol Williston Park. 2006;20(6):579–87. discussion 588, 594, 596 passim.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Crawford E, Leewansangtong S, Goktas S, Holthaus K, Baier M. Efficiency of prostate-specific antigen and digital rectal examination in screening, using 4.0 ng/ml and age-specific reference range as a cutoff for abnormal values. Prostate J. 1999;38(4):296–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fisher B, Anderson S, Bryant J, Margolese RG, Deutsch M, Fisher ER, et al. Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, and lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(16):1233–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG). Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet. 2005;365(9472):1687–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Clarke M, Collins R, Darby S, Davies C, Elphinstone P, Evans E, et al. Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet. 2005;366(9503):2087–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Manfredi S, Bouvier AM, Lepage C, Hatem C, Dancourt V, Faivre J. Incidence and patterns of recurrence after resection for cure of colonic cancer in a well defined population. Br J Surg. 2006;93(9):1115–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Figueredo A, Rumble RB, Maroun J, Earle CC, Cummings B, McLeod R, et al. Follow-up of patients with curatively resected colorectal cancer: a practice guideline. BMC Cancer. 2003;3:26.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Han M, Partin AW, Piantadosi S, Epstein JI, Walsh PC. Era specific biochemical recurrence-free survival following radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer. J Urol. 2001;166(2):416–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kerlikowske K, Molinaro A, Cha I, Ljung BM, Ernster VL, Stewart K, et al. Characteristics associated with recurrence among women with ductal carcinoma in situ treated by lumpectomy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95(22):1692–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Evans CP. Follow-up surveillance strategies for genitourinary malignancies. Cancer. 2002;94(11):2892–905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Baker F, Denniston M, Smith T, West MM. Adult cancer survivors: how are they faring? Cancer. 2005;104(11 Suppl):2565–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Deimling GT, Bowman KF, Sterns S, Wagner LJ, Kahana B. Cancer-related health worries and psychological distress among older adult, long-term cancer survivors. Psychooncology. 2006;15(4):306–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Anderson SJ, Wapnir I, Dignam JJ, Fisher B, Mamounas EP, Jeong JH, et al. Prognosis after ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and locoregional recurrences in patients treated by breast-conserving therapy in five National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project protocols of node-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(15):2466–73.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nielsen HM, Overgaard M, Grau C, Jensen AR, Overgaard J. Study of failure pattern among high-risk breast cancer patients with or without postmastectomy radiotherapy in addition to adjuvant systemic therapy: long-term results from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group DBCG 82 b and c randomized studies. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(15):2268–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Renehan AG, Egger M, Saunders MP, O’Dwyer ST. Impact on survival of intensive follow up after curative resection for colorectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2002;324(7341):813.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Snyder CF, Earle CC, Herbert RJ, Neville BA, Blackford AL, Frick KD. Trends in follow-up and preventive care for colorectal cancer survivors. J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23(3):254–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ganz PA. Survivorship: adult cancer survivors. Prim Care. 2009;36(4):721–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Travis LB. The epidemiology of second primary cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2006;15(11):2020–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Travis LB, Rabkin CS, Brown LM, Allan JM, Alter BP, Ambrosone CB, et al. Cancer survivorship–genetic susceptibility and second primary cancers: research strategies and recommendations. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006;98(1):15–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ng AK, Travis LB. Second primary cancers: an overview. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2008;22(2):271–89. vii.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mariotto AB, Rowland JH, Ries LA, Scoppa S, Feuer EJ. Multiple cancer prevalence: a growing challenge in long-term survivorship. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2007;16(3):566–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Travis LB, Fossa SD, Schonfeld SJ, McMaster ML, Lynch CF, Storm H, et al. Second cancers among 40, 576 testicular cancer patients: focus on long-term survivors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97(18):1354–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tward J, Glenn M, Pulsipher M, Barnette P, Gaffney D. Incidence, risk factors, and pathogenesis of second malignancies in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2007;48(8):1482–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chaturvedi AK, Engels EA, Gilbert ES, Chen BE, Storm H, Lynch CF, et al. Second cancers among 104, 760 survivors of cervical cancer: evaluation of long-term risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99(21):1634–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Henderson TO, Amsterdam A, Bhatia S, Hudson MM, Meadows AT, Neglia JP, et al. Systematic review: surveillance for breast cancer in women treated with chest radiation for childhood, adolescent, or young adult cancer. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152(7):444–55. W144-54.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fisher B, Costantino JP, Redmond CK, Fisher ER, Wickerham DL, Cronin WM. Endometrial cancer in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients: findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-14. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994;86(7):527–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Huang Z, Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Hunter DJ, Manson JE, et al. Dual effects of weight and weight gain on breast cancer risk. JAMA. 1997;278(17):1407–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bergstrom A, Pisani P, Tenet V, Wolk A, Adami HO. Overweight as an avoidable cause of cancer in Europe. Int J Cancer. 2001;91(3):421–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kushi LH, Kwan ML, Lee MM, Ambrosone CB. Lifestyle factors and survival in women with breast cancer. J Nutr. 2007;137(1 Suppl):236S–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Walter LC, Covinsky KE. Cancer screening in elderly patients: a framework for individualized decision making. JAMA. 2001;285(21):2750–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Walter LC, Lewis CL, Barton MB. Screening for colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer in the elderly: a review of the evidence. Am J Med. 2005;118(10):1078–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Feinstein AR. The pre-therapeutic classification of co-morbidity in chronic disease. J Chron Dis. 1970;23(7):455–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Boyd CM, Weiss CO, Halter J, Han KC, Ershler WB, Fried LP. Framework for evaluating disease severity measures in older adults with comorbidity. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62(3):286–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Valderas JM, Starfield B, Sibbald B, Salisbury C, Roland M. Defining comorbidity: implications for understanding health and health services. Ann Fam Med. 2009;7(4):357–63.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fried LP, Ferrucci L, Darer J, Williamson JD, Anderson G. Untangling the concepts of disability, frailty, and comorbidity: implications for improved targeting and care. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004;59(3):255–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Charlson ME, Pompei P, Ales KL, MacKenzie CR. A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chron Dis. 1987;40(5):373–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Deyo RA, Cherkin DC, Ciol MA. Adapting a clinical comorbidity index for use with ICD-9-CM administrative databases. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992;45(6):613–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Satariano WA, Silliman RA. Comorbidity: implications for research and practice in geriatric oncology. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2003;48(2):239–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Karlamangla A, Tinetti M, Guralnik J, Studenski S, Wetle T, Reuben D. Comorbidity in older adults: nosology of impairment, diseases, and conditions. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62(3):296–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pope GC, Kautter J, Ellis RP, Ash AS, Ayanian JZ, Lezzoni LI, et al. Risk adjustment of Medicare capitation payments using the CMS-HCC model. Health Care Financ Rev. 2004;25(4):119–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Elixhauser A, Steiner C, Palmer L, Clinical classifications software (CCS), 2010. U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Available: http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/toolssoftware/ccs/ccs.jsp.
  56. 56.
    Gijsen R, Hoeymans N, Schellevis FG, Ruwaard D, Satariano WA, van den Bos GA. Causes and consequences of comorbidity: a review. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001;54(7):661–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wolff JL, Starfield B, Anderson G. Prevalence, expenditures, and complications of multiple chronic conditions in the elderly. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162(20):2269–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mao JJ, Armstrong K, Bowman MA, Xie SX, Kadakia R, Farrar JT. Symptom burden among cancer survivors: impact of age and comorbidity. J Am Board Fam Med. 2007;20(5):434–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Keating NL, Norredam M, Landrum MB, Huskamp HA, Meara E. Physical and mental health status of older long-term cancer survivors. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(12):2145–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ness KK, Hudson MM, Ginsberg JP, Nagarajan R, Kaste SC, Marina N, et al. Physical performance limitations in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(14):2382–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Janson C, Leisenring W, Cox C, Termuhlen AM, Mertens AC, Whitton JA, et al. Predictors of marriage and divorce in adult survivors of childhood cancers: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2009;18(10):2626–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Garman KS, Pieper CF, Seo P, Cohen HJ. Function in elderly cancer survivors depends on comorbidities. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003;58(12):M1119–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lazovich D, Robien K, Cutler G, Virnig B, Sweeney C. Quality of life in a prospective cohort of elderly women with and without cancer. Cancer. 2009;115(18 Suppl):4283–97.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sweeney C, Schmitz KH, Lazovich D, Virnig BA, Wallace RB, Folsom AR. Functional limitations in elderly female cancer survivors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006;98(8):521–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tammemagi CM, Nerenz D, Neslund-Dudas C, Feldkamp C, Nathanson D. Comorbidity and survival disparities among black and white patients with breast cancer. JAMA. 2005;294(14):1765–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lash TL, Mor V, Wieland D, Ferrucci L, Satariano W, Silliman RA. Methodology, design, and analytic techniques to address measurement of comorbid disease. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62(3):281–5.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Earle CC, Neville BA, Fletcher R. Mental health service utilization among long-term cancer survivors. J Cancer Surviv. 2007;1(2):156–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kerr EA, Heisler M, Krein SL, Kabeto M, Langa KM, Weir D, et al. Beyond comorbidity counts: how do comorbidity type and severity influence diabetes patients’ treatment priorities and self-management? J Gen Intern Med. 2007;22(12):1635–40.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jaen CR, Stange KC, Nutting PA. Competing demands of primary care: a model for the delivery of clinical preventive services. J Fam Pract. 1994;38(2):166–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA). Patient-Centered Medical Home. [cited 2010 05/07]; Available from: http://www.ncqa.org/tabid/631/Default.aspx.
  71. 71.
    Boyd CM, Darer J, Boult C, Fried LP, Boult L, Wu AW. Clinical practice guidelines and quality of care for older patients with multiple comorbid diseases: implications for pay for performance. JAMA. 2005;294(6):716–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public HealthUniversity of MemphisMemphisUSA

Personalised recommendations