History of Rotavirus Vaccines Part I: RotaShield

  • Albert Z. Kapikian


According to hieroglyphic evidence, diarrhea is one of the oldest recorded illnesses, dating as far back as 3300 bc [1]. However, despite major discoveries in microbiology during the past century, the etiology of most diarrheal illnesses remained elusive until relatively recently [2, 3]. Although volunteer studies in the 1940s and 1950s showed that oral administration of bacteria-free stool filtrates derived from patients with diarrhea could induce illness, a suspected viral etiologic agent could not be identified.


Quadrivalent Vaccine Diarrheal Illness Norwalk Virus African Green Monkey Kidney Cell Negative Stain Electron Microscopy 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesNational Institutes of Health, DHHSBethesdaUSA

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