BOLD fMRI pp 23-54 | Cite as

fMRI Scanning Methodologies

  • Alexander B. Pinus
  • Feroze B. Mohamed


A pervasive and constant challenge in the field of neuroscience is to advance in the understanding of working mechanisms of the human brain and what enacts such complex functions as perception, emotions, and behavior. In areas of clinical psychology, neurophysiology, and neurosciences, it is an ultimate interest to describe neuronal functions quantitatively, as well as qualitatively, under what is considered normal conditions and various disorders, and later use that knowledge for diagnostic purposes.


Pulse Sequence Blood Oxygenation Level Dependency Transverse Magnetization Echo Planar Image Blood Oxygenation Level Dependency Signal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Robitaille PM, Abduljali AM, Kangarlu A. Ultra high resolution imaging of the human head at 8 tesla: 2K × 2K for Y2K. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2000;24(1):2–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Guinnessy P. Powerful NMR mashines debut in USA. Physics Today. 2002;55(3):30–31.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Constans A. NMR hits the big time. The Scientist. 2003;17(7):45–47.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Clark DD, Sokoloff L. Basic neurochemistry. In: Circulation and Energy Metabolism of the Brain, New York: Raven; 1994:645–680.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hasselbalch SG, Knudsen GM, Jakobsen J, Hagenman LP, Holm S, Paulason OB. Brain metabolism during short term starvation in humans. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1994;14:125–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schwartz WJ, Smith CB, Davidsen L, Savaki H, Sokoloff L, Mata M, Fink DJ, Gainer H. Metabolic mapping of functional activity in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system of the rat. Science. 1979;205:723–725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hyder F, Rothman DL, Mason GF, Rangarajan A, Shulman KL. Oxidative glucose metabolism in rat brain during single forepaw stimulation: A spatially localized 1H[13C nuclear magnetic resonance study]. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1997;17:1040–1047.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gross PM, Sposito NM, Pettersen SE, Panton DG, Fenstermacher JD. Topography of capillary density, glucose metabolism, and microvascular function within the rat inferior colliculus. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1987;7:154–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Klein B, Kuschinsky W, Schrock H, Vetterlein F. Interdependency of local capillary density, blood flow, and metabolism in rat brains. Am J Physiol. 1986;251:H1333–H1340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fox PT, Raichle ME, Mintun MA, Dence C. Nonoxidative glucose consumption during focal physiologic neuronal activity. Science. 1988;241:462–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Davis TL, Kwong KK, Weisskoff RM, Rosen BR. Calibrated functional MRI: Mapping the dynamics of oxidative metabolism. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA. 1998;95:1834–1839.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thulborn KR, Waterton JC, Mattews PM, Padda GK. Oxygenation dependence of the transverse relaxation time of water protons in while blood at high field. Biochem Biophys Acta. 1982;714:265–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Turner R, Le Bihan D, Moonen CT, Despres D, Frank D. Echo-planar time course MRI of cat brain oxygenation changes. Magn Resón Med. 1991;22:159–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Feynman RP, Leighton RB, Sands M. The Feynman Lectures on Physics, vol. 1. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company; 1964.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bandettini PA, Wong EC, Jesmanowicz A, Hinks RS, Hyde JS. Spin-echo and Gradient-echo EPI of human brain activation using BOLD contrast. A comparative study at 1.5T. NMR Biomed. 1994;7:12–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hahn EL. Spin echoes. Physical Rev. 1950;80:580–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Oppelt A, Graumann R, Barfuss H. FISP: A new fast MRI sequence. Electromedica. 1986;54:15–18.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Scheffler K, Seifritz E, Bilecen D, Venkatesan R, Hennig J, Deimling M, Haacke EM. Detection of BOLD changes by means of a frequency-sensitive trueFISP technique: Preliminary results. NMR Biomed. 2001;14(7–8):490–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Scheffler K, Hennig J. TIDE (transition into driven equilibrium)-sequences for brain imaging with improved signal and contrast behaviour. In: Proceedings of ISMRM. 11 th Scientific Meeting and Exhibition. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: 2003:973.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Haake EM, Brown RE, Thompson MR, Venkatesan R. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Physical Principles and Sequence Design. New-York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 1999.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ernst R, Anderson W. Application of Fourier transform spectroscopy to magnetic resonance. Rev Sci Instrum. 1966;37:93–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dale B, Wendt M, Duerk JL. A rapid look-up table method for reconstructing MR images from arbitrary k-space trajectories. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2001;20(3):207–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Meyer C, Hu B, Nishimura DG, Macovshi A. Fast coronary artery imaging. Magn Reson Imaging. 1992;28:202–213.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yacoe ME, Li KC, Cheung L, Meyer CH. Spiral spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis with spectrally and spatially selective radiofrequency excitation: Comparison with fat-saturated fast spin-echo imaging. Can Assoc Radiol J. 1996;48:247–251.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Noll DC, Cohen JD, Meyer CH, Schneider W. Spiral k-space MR imaging of cortical activation. J Magn Reson Imaging. 1995;5(1):49–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cohen JD, Perlstein WM, Braver TS, Nystrom LE, Noll DC, Jonides J, Smith EE. Temporal dynamics of brain activation during a working memory task. Nature. 1997;386:604–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nishimura DG, Irarrazabal P, Meyer CH. A velocity k-space analysis of flow effects in echo-planar and spiral imaging. Magn Reson Med. 1995;33:549–556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Spielman DM, Pauly JM, Meyer CH. Magnetic resonance fluoroscopy using spirals with variable sampling densities. Magn Reson Med. 1995;34:388–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander B. Pinus
    • 1
  • Feroze B. Mohamed
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Magnetic Resonance Research CenterYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Department of Radiology, Functional Brain Imaging CenterTemple University School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations