Advertisement

Older Adults

  • Christine Gould
  • Barry A. Edelstein
  • Caroline Ciliberti
Chapter

Abstract

In 2006 there were 37.3 million older adults (65+) in the USA, which represents an increase of 3.4 million over a period of 10 years (Administration on Aging, 2009). Approximately 12.4% of the population is 65 years of age or older. Older adults are also living longer, with 5.3 million older adults who are 85 years of age and older. Approximately 19% of older adults in 2006 were members of minority groups, with the greatest percentage (8.3%) being African American, followed by persons of Hispanic origin (6.4%) and Asian or Pacific Islanders (3.1%) (Administration on Aging, 2009). Approximately 1.62 million (l.4%) of older adults were living in nursing homes in 2006, with the greatest percentage in the age range of 75-84 years (15.4%; Administration on Aging, 2009).

Approximately 20-25% of older adults have a mental disorder, but less than 25% of those receive mental health attention (Administration on Aging, 2009). This may be due in part to the fact that older adults most likely seek help for mental health problems from primary care physicians, and many primary care physicians have failed to adequately assess for mental health problems (cf., Scogin & Shah, 2006). Such assessment is critical and must be followed by adequate treatment or referral and follow-up.

Keywords

Anxiety Disorder Mental Health Problem Mild Cognitive Impairment Personality Disorder Suicide Risk 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Administration on Aging (2009). Statistics: Aging in the 21st century. Retrieved March 2, 2009. http://www.aoa.gov/prof/Statistics/future_growth/aging21/health.aspx
  2. Alexopoulos, G. S., Meyers, B. S., Young, R. C., Mattis, S., & Kakuma, T. (1993). The course of geriatric depression with “reversible dementia”: A controlled study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1693-1699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Beaudreau, S. A., & O’Hara, R. (2008). Late-life anxiety and cognitive impairment: A review. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16(10), 790-803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beautrais, A. (2002). A case control study of suicide and attempted suicide in older adults. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 32(1), 1-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beekman, A. T. F., Deeg, D. J. H., Braam, A. W., Smit, J. H., & Van Tilburg, W. (1997). Consequences of major and minor depression in later life: A study of disability, well-being and service utilization. Psychological Medicine, 27, 1397-1409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bierman, E., Comijs, H., Rijmen, F., Jonker, C., & Beekman, A. (2008). Anxiety symptoms and cognitive performance in later life: Results from the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam. Aging and Mental Health, 12(4), 517-523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blanchard, J. J., & Brown, S. H. (1998). Structured diagnostic interview schedules. In C. R. Reynolds (Ed.), Assessment (Vol. 4, pp. 97-130). Oxford: Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  9. Blazer, D. G. (1996). The psychiatric interview of the geriatric patient. In E. W. Busse & D. G. Blazer (Eds.), Textbook of geriatric psychiatry (pp. 175-189). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  10. Blazer, D. G. (2004). The psychiatric interview of older adults. The Journal of Lifelong Learning in Psychiatry, 2, 224-235.Google Scholar
  11. Blazer, D. (2009). The psychiatric interview of older adults. In D. G. Blazer & D. C. Steffens (Eds.), Textbook of geriatric psychiatry (4th ed., pp. 224-235). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blazer, D., Service, C., George, L. K., & Burchett, D. (1991). The association of age and depression among the elderly: An epidemiologic exploration. Journal of Gerontology, 46(6), 210-215.Google Scholar
  13. Blazer, D., & Williams, C. D. (1980). Epidemiology of dysphoria and depression in an elderly population. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 439-444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Booth, J., Schinka, J., Brown, L., Mortimer, J., & Borenstein, A. (2006). Five-factor personality dimensions, mood states, and cognitive performance in older adults. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 28(5), 676-683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bowers, J., Jorm, A. F., Henderson, S., & Harris, P. (1990). General practitioners’ detection of depression and dementia in elderly patients. Medical Journal of Australia, 153(4), 192-196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (2005). Dimensional versus categorical classification of mental disorders in the fifth edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders and beyond: Comment on the special section. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(4), 551-556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, G. K., Bruce, M. L., Pearson, J. L., Alexopoulos, G. S., Katz, I., TenHave, T., et al. (2001). High-risk management guidelines for elderly suicidal patients in primary care settings. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16(6), 593-601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown, T. A., DiNardo, P. A., & Barlow, D. H. (1994). Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Adult Version (Client Interview Schedule). San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  19. Butler, R. (1980). Ageism: A foreword. Journal of Social Issues, 36, 8-11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Butler, R. N. (1989). Dispelling ageism: The cross-cutting intervention. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 503, 138-147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Butters, M. A., Becker, J. T., Nebes, R. D., Zmuda, M. D., Mulsant, B. H., Pollock, B. G., et al. (2000). Changes in cognitive functioning following treatment of late-life depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1949-1954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bytheway, B. (2005). Ageism and age categorism. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 361-374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Campbell, D. T., & Fiske, D. W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carr, D. S. (2004). Black/White differences in psychological adjustment to spousal loss among older adults. Research on Aging, 26, 591-622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carstensen, L. L., & Mikels, J. A. (2005). At the intersection of emotion and cognition: Aging and the positivity effect. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 117-121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Casas, M., Ramos-Quiroga, J., Prat, G., & Qureshi, A. (2004). Effects of coffee and caffeine on mood and mood disorders. In A. Nehlig (Ed.), Coffee, tea, chocolate, and the brain (pp. 73-83). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  27. Center for Disease Control (2004). The state of aging and health in America. Retrieved March 2, 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/aging/pdf/State_of_Aging_and_Health_in_America_2004.pdf
  28. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) [Online]. (2005). National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC (producer). Available from URL: www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/default.htm. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
  29. Chaudieu, I., Beluche, I., Norton, J., Carriere, I., Boulenger, J. P., Ritchie, K., et al. (2007). Abnormal reactions to environmental stress in elderly persons with anxiety disorders: Evidence from a population study of diurnal cortisol changes. Journal of Affective Disorders, 106(3), 307-313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Christensen, H., Jorm, A. F., Mackinnon, A. J., Korten, A. E., Jacomb, P. A., Henderson, A. S., et al. (1999). Age differences in depression and anxiety symptoms: A structural equation modeling analysis of data from a general population sample. Psychological Medicine, 29, 325-339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis issues for field settings. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  32. Copeland, J. R., Kelleher, M. J., Kellett, J. M., Gourlay, A. J., Gurland, B. J., Fleiss, J. L., et al. (1976). A semistructured clinical interview for the assessment of diagnosis and mental state in the elderly: The Geriatric Mental State Schedule: 1. Development and reliability. Psychological Medicine, 6, 439-449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. de Beurs, E., Beekman, A. T. F., van Balkom, A. J. L. M., Deeg, D. J. H., van Dyck, R., & van Tilburg, W. (1999). Consequences of anxiety in older persons: Its effect on disability, well-being and use of health services. Psychological Medicine, 29(3), 583-593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Derouesne, C., Rapin, J. R., & Lacomblez, L. (2004). Memory complaints in 200 subjects meeting the diagnostic criteria for age-associated memory impairment: Psychoaffective and cognitive correlates. Psychologie and Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement, 2(1), 67-74.Google Scholar
  35. Dilworth-Anderson, P., Brummett, B. H., Goodwin, P., Wallace Williams, S., Williams, B., & Siegler, I. C. (2005). Effect of race on cultural justifications for caregiving. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 60B, S257-S262.Google Scholar
  36. Dupree, L. W., & Patterson, R. L. (1985). Assessing deficits and supports in the elderly. In M. Hersen & S. M. Turner (Eds.), Diagnostic interviewing (pp. 337-359). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  37. Eaton, W. W., Neufeld, K., Chen, L., & Cai, G. (2000). A comparison of self-report and clinical diagnostic interviews for depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 217-222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Edelstein, B., Koven, L., Spira, A., & Shreve-Neiger, A. (2003a). Older adults. In M. Hersen & S. Turner (Eds.), Diagnostic interviewing (3rd ed., pp. 433-455). New York: Kluwer/Plenum.Google Scholar
  39. Edelstein, B., Martin, R., & Koven, L. (2003b). Assessment in geriatric settings. In J. R. Graham & J. A. Naglieri (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychology: Volume 10: Assessment psychology (pp. 389-414). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  40. Edelstein, B. A., Martin, R. R., & Goodie, J. L. (2000). Considerations for older adults. In M. Hersen & M. Biaggio (Eds.), Effective brief therapies: A clinician’s guide (pp. 433-449). New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Edelstein, B., Woodhead, E., Segal, D., Heisel, M., Bower, E., Lowery, A., et al. (2008). Older adult psychological assessment: Current instrument status and related considerations. Clinical Gerontologist, 31, 1-35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Elderkin-Thompson, V., Mintz, J., Haroon, E., Lavretsky, H., & Kumar, A. (2007). Executive dysfunction and memory in older patients with major and minor depression. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22, 261-270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ferguson, J. M. (2001). SSRI antidepressant medications: Adverse effects and tolerability. Primary Care Companion Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 3, 22-27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. First, M. B., Gibbon, M., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. W. (1996). User’s guide for the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders B Research Version (SCID-I, version 2.0, February 1996 Final Version). New York: Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
  45. First, M. B., Gibbon, M., Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B. W., & Benjamin, L. S. (1997). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  46. Fiske, A., Kasl-Godley, J. E., Gatz, M. (1998). Mood disorders in late life. In B. Edelstein (Ed.), Comprehensive clinical psychology, Vol. 7: Clinical geropsychology (pp. 193-229). Oxford: Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  47. Fiske, A., & O’Riley, A. A. (2008). Assessment of depression in late life. In J. D. Hunsley & E. J. Mash (Eds.), A guide to assessments that work (pp. 138-157). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Flint, A. J. (1994). Epidemiology and comorbidity of anxiety disorders in the elderly. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(5), 640-649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Folstein, M. F., Folstein, F. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). Mini-mental state. A practical method of grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12(3), 189-198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fountoulakis, K. N., Iacovides, A., Grammaticos, P., St. Kaprinis, G., & Bech, P. (2004). Thyroid function in clinical subtypes of major depression: An exploratory study. BMC Psychiatry, 4, 1-9.Google Scholar
  51. Gallo, J. J., Anthony, J. C., & Muthen, B. O. (1994). Age differences in the symptoms of depression: A latent trait analysis. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 49(6), 251-264.Google Scholar
  52. Garbryelewicz, T., Styczynska, M., Pfeffer, A., Wasiak, B., Barczak, A., Luczywek, E., et al. (2004). Prevalence of major and minor depression in elderly persons with mild cognitive impairment-MADRS factor analysis. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, 1168-1172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gatz, M., & Pearson, C. G. (1988). Ageism revised and the provision of psychological services. American Psychologist, 43, 184-188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gilsky, E. L., Rubin, S. R., & Davidson, P. S. (2001). Source memory in older adults: An encoding or retrieval problem? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 1131-1146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. González, H. M., Haan, M. N., & Hinton, L. (2001). Acculturation and the prevalence of depression in older Mexican Americans: Baseline results of the Sacramento area Latino study on aging. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 49, 948-953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Goodglass, H., & Kaplan, E. (1983). The assessment of aphasia and related disorders. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.Google Scholar
  57. Gould, C. E., Smith, M., & Edelstein, B. A. (in press). Special considerations for assessment in older adults. In F. Andrasik, J. Goodie, A. Peterson (Ed.), Biopsychosocial assessment in clinical health psychology: A handbook. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  58. Groth-Marnat, G. (2003). Handbook of psychological assessment (4th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  59. Gurland, B., Foldon, R. R., Teresi, J. A., & Challop, J. (1984). The SHORT-CARE: An efficient instrument for the assessment of depression, dementia, and disability. Journal of Gerontology, 36, 166-169.Google Scholar
  60. Gurland, B. J., Kuriansky, J., Sharpe, L., Simon, R., Stiller, P., & Birkett, P. (1977). The Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (CARE): Rationale, development, and reliability. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 8, 9-42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hajjar, E., & Hanlon, J. T. (2006). Polypharmacy in the elderly. In K. Calhoun & D. E. Eibling (Eds.), Geriatric otolaryngology (pp. 667-673). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  62. Harman, J. S., Crystal, S., Walkup, J., & Olfson, M. (2003). Trends in elderly patients’ office visits for the treatment of depression according to physician specialty: 1985-1999. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 30(3), 332-341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Harman, J. S., Rollman, B. L., Hanusa, B. H., Lenze, E. J., & Shear, M. K. (2002). Physician office visits of adults for anxiety disorders in the United States, 1985-1998. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17, 165-172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hayes, S. C., & Toarmino, D. (1995). If behavioral principles are generally applicable, why is it necessary to understand cultural diversity? The Behavior Therapist, 18, 21-23.Google Scholar
  65. Helzer, J. E., Kraemer, H. C., & Krueger, R. F. (2006). The feasibility and need for dimensional psychiatric diagnoses. Psychological Medicine, 36(12), 1671-1680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Henderson, R., Kurlan, R., Kersun, J. M., & Como, P. (1992). Preliminary examination of the comorbidity of anxiety and depression in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neuropsychiatry Clinical Neurosciences, 4, 257-264.Google Scholar
  67. Hendrie, H. C., Hall, K. S., Brittain, H. M., Austrom, A., D., Farlow, M., Parker, J. et al. (1988). The CAMDEX: A standardized instrument for the diagnosis of mental disorders in the elderly - a replication with a US sample. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 36, 402-408.Google Scholar
  68. Inouye, S. K. (1998). Delirium in hospitalized older patients: Recognition and risk factors. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 11(3), 118-125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Juurlink, D. N., Herrmann, N., Szalai, J. P., Kopp, A., & Redelmeier, D. A. (2004). Medical illness and the risk of suicide in the elderly. Archives of Internal Medicine, 164, 1179-1184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Knight, B. G. (2004). Psychotherapy with older adults (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  71. Kogan, J., Edelstein, B., & McKee, D. (2000). Assessment of anxiety in older adults: Current status. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 14, 109-132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lang, P. J. (1968). Fear reduction and fear behavior: Problems in treating a construct. In J. M. Schlein (Ed.), Research in psychotherapy (Vol. 3, pp. 90-103). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lau, A. W., Edelstein, B. A., & Larkin, K. T. (2001). Psychophysiological arousal in older adults: A critical review. Clinical Psychology Review, 21(4), 609-630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lavretsky, H., & Kumar, A. (2003). Clinically significant non-major geriatric depression. Practical Geriatrics, 54(3), 297-299.Google Scholar
  75. Lee, P. P., Feldman, Z. W., Ostermann, J., Brown, D. S., & Sloan, F. A. (2003). Longitudinal prevalence of major eye diseases. Archives of Ophthalmology, 121, 1303-1310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lenze, E. J., Mulsant, B. H., Shear, M. K., Alexopoulos, G. S., Frank, E., & Reynolds, C. F. (2001). Comorbidity of depression and anxiety disorders in later life. Depression and Anxiety, 14(2), 86-93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Loranger, A. W. (1999). International personality disorder examination. DSM-IV and ICD-10 interviews. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
  78. Lyness, J. M., Heo, M., Datto, C. J., Ten Have, T. R., Katz, I. R., Drayer, R., et al. (2006). Outcomes of minor and subsyndromal depression among elderly patients in primary care settings. Annals of Internal Medicine, 144(7), 496-504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lyness, J. M., King, D. A., Cox, C., Yoediono, Z., & Caine, E. D. (1999). The importance of subsyndromal depression in older primary care patients: Prevalence and associated functional disability. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 47(6), 647-652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Mantella, R. C., Butters, M. A., Amico, J. A., Mazumdar, S., Rollman, B. L., Begley, A. E., et al. (2008). Salivary cortisol is associated with diagnosis and severity of late-life generalized anxiety disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 33(6), 773-781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mantella, R. C., Butters, M. A., Dew, M. A., Mulsant, B. H., Begley, A. E., Tracey, B., et al. (2007). Cognitive impairment in late-life generalized anxiety disorder. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15(8), 673-679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Maser, J. D., Norman, S. B., Zisook, S., Everall, I. P., Stein, M. B., Schettler, P. J., et al. (2009). Psychiatric nosology is ready for a paradigm shift in DSM-V. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 16(1), 24-40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. May, C. P., Hasher, L., & Foong, N. (2005). Implicit memory, age, and time of day. Psychological Science, 16, 96-100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. May, C. P., Hasher, L., & Stoltzfus, E. R. (1993). Optimal time of day and the magnitude of age differences in memory. Psychological Science, 4, 326-330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. McLean, A. J., & Le Couteur, D. G. (2004). Aging biology and geriatric clinical pharmacology. Pharmacological Reviews, 56, 163-184.Google Scholar
  86. Meyer, G. J., Fionn, S. E., Eyde, L. D., Kay, G. G., Moreland, K. L., Dies, R. R., et al. (2001). Psychological testing and psychological assessment: A review of evidence and issues. American Psychologist, 56(2), 128-165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mikels, J. A., Larkin, G. L., Reuter-Lorenz, P. A., & Carstensen, L. L. (2005). Divergent trajectories in the aging mind: Changes in working memory for affective versus visual information with age. Psychology and Aging, 20, 542-553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mikkelsen, R. L., Middelboe, T., Piosinger, C., & Stage, K. B. (2004). Anxiety and depression in patients with chronic pulmonary disease (COPD): A review. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 58, 65-70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mroczek, D. K., Hurth, S. W., & Berman, W. H. (1999). Conceptual and methodological issues in the assessment of personality disorders in older adults. In E. Rosowsky, R. C. Abrams & R. A. Zweig (Eds.), Personality disorders in older adults (pp. 135-150). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  90. Mulsant, B. H., & Ganguli, M. (1999). Epidemiology and diagnosis of depression in late life. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, 9-15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Naserredine, Z. S., Phillips, N. A., Bedirian, V., Charbonneau, S., Whitehead, V., Collin, I., et al. (2005). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: A brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 53(4), 695-699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. National Eye Institute. (2002). Vision Problems in the U.S. Retrieved from http://www.nei.nih.gov/eyedata/pdf/VPUS.pdf on February 24, 2009.
  93. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (1997). Presbycusis. Retrieved from http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/presbycusis.asp on February 24, 2009.
  94. Nebes, R. D., Butters, M. A., Mulsant, B. H., Pollock, B. G., Zmuda, M. D., Houck, P. R., et al. (2000). Decreased working memory and processing speed mediate cognitive impairment in geriatric depression. Psychological Medicine, 30, 679-691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Nock, M. K., Wedig, M. M., Bellejanis, I., & Deliberto, T. L. (2008). Self-injurious thoughts and behaviors. In J. Hunsley & E. J. Mash (Eds.), A guide to assessments that work (pp. 158-180). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  96. O’Connor, D. W., Rosewarne, R., & Bruce, A. (2001). Depression in primary care 2: General practitioners’ recognition of major depression in elderly patients. International Psychogeriatrics, 13(3), 367-374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Palmer, B. W., Jeste, D. V., & Sheikh, J. L. (1997). Anxiety disorders in the elderly: DSM-IV and other barriers to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Affective Disorders, 46(3), 183-190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Park, D. C., Lautenschlager, G., Hedden, T., Davidson, N. S., Smith, A. D., & Smith, P. K. (2002). Models of visuospatial and verbal memory across the adult life span. Psychology and Aging, 17, 299-320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pfohl, B., Blum, N., & Zimmerman, M. (1997). Structured interview for DSM-IV personality (SIDP-IV). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  100. Ravindran, A. V., Welburn, K., & Copeland, J. R. M. (1994). Semi-structured depression scale sensitive to change with treatment for use in the elderly. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 522-527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Regier, D. A. (2007). Dimensional approaches to psychiatric classification: Refining the research agenda for DSM-V: An introduction. Psychiatric Research, 16(S1), 1-5.Google Scholar
  102. Riley, K. P. (1994). Depression in older adults: Detection, dysfunction, and treatment. In B. R. Bonder & M. B. Wagner (Eds.), Functional performance in older adults (pp. 256-268). New York: F. A. Davis Company.Google Scholar
  103. Robins, L. N., Helzer, J. E., Croughan, J., & Radcliff, K. S. (1981). National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule: Its history, characteristics, and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 381-389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rodin, G., Craven, J., & Littlefield, C. (1993). Depression in the medically ill. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  105. Rodin, J., & Langer, E. J. (1980). Aging labels: The decline of control and the fall of self-esteem. Journal of Social Issues, 36, 12-29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rogers, R. (2001). Handbook of diagnostic and structured interviewing. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  107. Roth, M., Tym, E., Mountjoy, C. Q., Huppert, F. A., Hendrie, F. A., Verma, S., et al. (1986). A standardized instrument for the diagnosis of mental disorder in the elderly with special reference to the early detection of dementia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 698-709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rozzini, L., Vicini Chilovi, B., Peli, M., Conti, M., Rozzini, R., Trabucchi, M., et al. (2009). Anxiety symptoms in mild cognitive impairment. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24(3), 300-305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Salthouse, T. A. (1993). Speed and knowledge as determinates of adult age differences in verbal tasks. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 48, 29-36.Google Scholar
  110. Salthouse, T. A. (1995). Differential age-related influences on memory for verbal-symbolic information and visual-spatial information? Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 50, P193-P201.Google Scholar
  111. Satre, D. D., Knight, B. G., & David, S. (2006). Cognitive-behavioral interventions with older adults: Integrating clinical and gerontological Research. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37, 489-498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Schaie, K. W. (1995). Intellectual development in adulthood: The Seattle Longitudinal Study. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  113. Scogin, F., & Shah, A. (2006). Screening older adults for depression in primary care settings. Health Psychology, 25, 675-677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Segal, D. L., Coolidge, F. L., O’Riley, A., & Heinz, B. A. (2006). Structured and semistructured interviews. In M. Hersen (Ed.), Clinician’s handbook of adult behavioral assessment (pp. 121-144). Burlington, MA: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Segal, D., Hersen, M., Van-Hasselt, V., Kabacoff, R. I., & Roth, L. (1993). Reliability of diagnosis in older psychiatric patients using the Structured Clinical interview for DSM-III-R. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 15, 347-358.Google Scholar
  116. Shapiro, M., Benedict, R. H. B., Schretlen, D., & Brandt, J. (1999). Construct and concurrent validity of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 13, 348-358.Google Scholar
  117. Simonton, D. K. (2000) Creativity. Cognitive, social, and personal aspects. American Psychologist, 55, 151-158.Google Scholar
  118. Sinoff, G., & Werner, P. (2003). Anxiety disorder and accompanying subjective memory loss in the elderly as a predictor of future cognitive decline. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18(10), 951-959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Stabler, S. P., Lindenbaum, J., & Allen, R. H. (1997). Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly: Current dilemmas. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66, 741-749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Taylor, A. E., Saint-Cyr, J. A., Lang, A. E., & Kenny, F. T. (1986). Parkinson’s disease and depression: A critical reevaluation. Brain, 109, 279-292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Thakur, M., & Doraiswamy, M. (2009). Use of the laboratory in the diagnostic workup of older adults. In D. G. Blazer & D. C. Steffens (Eds.), Textbook of geriatric psychiatry (4th ed., pp. 201-212). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  122. Thompson, L. W., Gallagher, D., & Breckenridge, J. S. (1987). Comparative effectiveness of psychotherapies for depressed elders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 385-390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Turvey, C. L., Conwell, Y., Jones, M. P., Phillips, C., Simonsick, E., Pearson, J. L., et al. (2002). Risk factors for late-life suicide: A prospective community-based approach. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 10(4), 398-406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. van Manen, J. G., Bindels, P. J. E., Dekker, F. W., van der Jzermans, C. J. I., Zee, J. S., & Schadé, E. (2002). Risk of depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its determinants. Thorax, 57, 412-416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. VonKorff, M., & Anthony, J. C. (1982). The NIMH diagnostic interview schedule modified to record current mental status. Journal of Affective Disorders, 4, 365-371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Waern, M., Runeson, B. S., Allebeck, P., Beskow, J., Rubenowitz, E., Skoog, I., et al. (2002). Mental disorder in elderly suicides: A case-control study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 450-455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wetherell, J. L., Reynolds, C. A., Gatz, M. & Pedersen, N. L. (2002). Anxiety, cognitive performance, and cognitive decline in normal aging. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 57(3), P246-P255.Google Scholar
  128. Whitbourne, S. K. (2005). Adult development and aging: Biopsychosocial perspectives (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  129. Widiger, T. A., Mangine, S., Corbitt, E. M., Ellis, C. G., & Thomas, G. V. (1995). Personality Disorder Interview-IV. A semistructured interview for the assessment of personality disorders. Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  130. Wong, G., & Baden, A. L. (2001). Multiculturally sensitive assessment with older adults: Recommendations and areas for additional study. In L. A. Suzuki, P. J. Meller & P. G. Ponterotto (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural assessment: Clinical, psychological, and educational applications (2nd ed., pp. 497-522). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  131. Yesavage, J. A., Brink, T. L., Rose, T. L., Lum, O., Huang, V., Adey, M., et al. (1983). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17, 37-49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Yoon, C., May, C. P., & Hasher, L. (1999). Aging, circadian arousal patterns, and cognition. In N. Schwartz, D. Park, B. Knauper & S. Sudman (Eds.), Cognition, aging, and self-reports (pp. 117-143). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  133. Yueh, B., Shapiro, N., MacLean, C. H., & Shekelle, P. G. (2003). Screening and management of adult hearing loss in primary care. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 1976-1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Zadikoff, C., Fox, S. H., Tang-Wai, D. F., Thomsen, T., de Bie, R. M. A., Wadia, P., et al. (2008). A comparison of the Mini Mental State Examination to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in identifying cognitive deficits in Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 23(2), 297-299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Zanarini, M. C., Frankenburg, F. R., Sickel, A. E., & Yong, L. (1996). The diagnostic interview for DSM-IV personality disorders (DIPD-IV). Belmont, MA: McLean Hospital.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine Gould
    • 1
  • Barry A. Edelstein
    • 1
  • Caroline Ciliberti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA

Personalised recommendations