Advertisement

Alcohol Problems

  • David C. Hodgins
  • Katherine Diskin
  • Jonathan N. Stea
Chapter

Abstract

Alcohol problems can be broadly defined as negative consequences that people experience as a result of their use of alcohol. People may drink alcohol for a number of reasons: to promote feelings of relaxation, to increase feelings of sociability, to elevate mood, to conform to social expectations, or to reduce feelings of stress (Anonymous, 2000). Information from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health for 2007 indicates that approximately 82% of adults (aged 12-years and older) surveyed reported alcohol use sometime during their lifetime, 66% reported they had used alcohol during the year preceding the survey, and 51% reported using alcohol in the 30 days preceding the survey.

As well as measuring frequency of alcohol use, the 2007 US National Survey on Drug Use and Health also included measures related to drinking quantity. The report stated that approximately 23% of the adults sampled engaged in binge drinking (consuming five or more drinks on a single occasion) in the 30 days preceding the survey and 7% engaged in heavy drinking (five or more binges during the preceding 30 days). These findings suggest that over 55.8 million adults were engaging in drinking at a level that is potentially problematic, and almost 17 million were engaging in even heavier and potentially more hazardous alcohol use. Essentially, then, there is at minimum a one in five chance that an adult encountered in clinical practice in the United States has engaged in at least one binge-drinking episode in the past 30 days. Alcohol problems are highly influenced by environmental exposure and cultural norms, thus there is considerable cross-cultural variation in the prevalence of alcohol problems. Nonetheless, despite the difference in prevalence rates, the expression of alcohol problems is similar across cultures (Helzer et al., 1990).

Keywords

Alcohol Dependence Personality Disorder Withdrawal Symptom Binge Drinking Alcohol Problem 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Allen, J. P., & Litten, R. Z. (2001). The role of laboratory tests in alcoholism treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 20, 81-85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews, G., & Peters, L. (1998). The psychometric properties of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33, 80-88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Annis, H. M., Graham, J. M., & Davis, C. S. (1987). Inventory of Drinking Situations. Users’ Guide. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous. (2000). Health risks and benefits of alcohol consumption. Alcohol Research & Health: The Journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 24, 5-11.Google Scholar
  5. Babor, T., de la Fuente, J. R., Saunders, J., & Grant, M. (1992). The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: Guidelines for use in primary health care. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  6. Bien, T. H., Miller, W. R., & Tonigan, J. S. (1993). Brief interventions for alcohol problems: A review. Addiction, 88, 315-336.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bradley, K. A., Boyd-Wickizer, J., Powell, S. H., & Burman, M. L. (1998). Alcohol screening questionnaires for women: A critical review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280, 166-171.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradley, K. A., Maynard, C., Kivlahan, D. R., McDonell, M. B., & Fihn, S. D. (2001). The relationship between alcohol screening questionnaires and mortality among male veteran outpatients. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 62, 826-833.Google Scholar
  9. Bradley, K. A., Bush, K., Davis, T. D., Dobie, D. J., Burman, M. L., Maynard, C. M., et al. (2003). Two brief alcohol screening tests from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): validation in a female Veterans Affairs patient population. Archives of Internal Medicine, 163, 821-839.Google Scholar
  10. Bradley, K. A., DeBenedetti, A. F., Volk, R. J., Williams, E. C., Frank, D., & Kivlahan, D. R. (2007). AUDIT-C as a brief screen for alcohol misuse in primary care. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 31, 1208-1217.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Breslin, F. C., Sobell, L. C., Sobell, M. B., & Agrawal, S. (2000). A comparison of a brief and long version of the Situational Confidence Questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 1211-1220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, S. A., Inabe, R. K., Gillin, J. C., Schuckit, M. A., & Stewart, M. A. (1995). Alcoholism and affective disorder: Clinical course of depressive symptoms. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 45-52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chan, A. W. K., Pristach, E. A., Welte, J. W., & Russell, M. (1993). Use of the TWEAK test in screening for alcoholism/heavy drinking in three populations. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 17, 1188-1192.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dawson, D. A. (1994). Consumption indicators of alcohol dependence. Addiction, 89, 345-350.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dawson, D. A., Grant, B. F., Stinson, F. S., & Zhou, Y. (2005). Effectiveness of the derived Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) in screening for alcohol use disorders and risk drinking in the US general population. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 29, 844-854.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Edwards, G., & Gross, M. M. (1976). Alcohol dependence: Provisional description of a clinical syndrome. British Medical Journal, 1, 1058-1061.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Escobar, J. I., & Vega, W. A. (2006). Cultural issues and psychiatric diagnosis: Providing a general background for considering substance use diagnosis. Addiction, 101(Suppl), 40-47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ewing, J. (1984). Detecting alcoholism: The CAGE questionnaire. Journal of the American Medical Association, 252, 1905-1907.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (1997). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinician Version (SCID-CV). DC, Washington: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  20. Forcehimes, A. A., Tonigan, J. S., Miller, W. R., Kenna, G. A., & Baer, J. S. (2007). Psychometrics of the Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DrInC). Addictive Behaviors, 32, 1699-1704.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Grant, B. F. (1997). Barriers to alcoholism treatment: Reasons for not seeking treatment in a general population sample. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 58, 365-371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Grant, B. F., & Dawson, D. A. (1999). Alcohol and drug use, abuse, and dependence: Classification, prevalence, and comorbidity. Addictions: A comprehensive guidebook (pp. 9-29). New York: Oxford.Google Scholar
  23. Greenberg, D. M., & Lee, J. W. (2001). Psychotic manifestations of alcoholism. Current Psychiatry Reports, 3, 314-318.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Heather, N., & Robertson, I. (1997). Problem drinking (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford.Google Scholar
  25. Hedlund, J. L., & Vieweg, B. W. (1984). The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST): A comprehensive review. Journal of Operational Psychiatry, 15, 55-64.Google Scholar
  26. Helzer, J. E., Canino, G. J., Eng-Kung, Y., Bland, R. C., Lee, C. K., Hwu, H., et al. (1990). Alcoholism-North America and Asia: A comparison of population surveys with the diagnostic interview schedule. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 313-319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Herd, D. (1994). Predicting drinking problems among black and white men: Results from a national survey. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 55, 61-71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hester, R. K., & Squires, D. D. (2008). Web-based norms for the Drinker Inventory of Consequences from the Drinker’s Checkup. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 35, 322-327.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hodgins, D. C. (2001). Stages of change assessments in alcohol problems: Agreement across self and clinician reports. Substance Abuse, 22, 87-96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hodgins, D. C., & el-Guebaly, N. (1992). More data on the Addiction Severity Index. Reliability and validity with the mentally ill substance abuser. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180, 197-201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hodgins, D. C., el-Guebaly, N., & Armstrong, S. (1995). Retrospective and prospective reports of mood states prior to relapse to substance use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 400-407.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hodgins, D. C., Leigh, G., Milne, R., & Gerrish, R. (1997). Drinking goal selection in behavioral self-management treatment of chronic alcoholics. Addictive Behaviors, 22, 247-255.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Johnson, J. G., Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Linzer, M., Brody, D., deGruy, F., et al. (1995). Psychiatric comorbidity, health status, and functional impairment associated with alcohol abuse and dependence in primary care patients: Findings of the PRIME MD-1000 study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 133-140.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kahan, M. (2000). Metabolism and acute effects. In E. Brands (Ed.), Management of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug problems (pp. 71-75). Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.Google Scholar
  35. Kahan, M., & Wilson, L. (2000). Alcohol withdrawal. In E. Brands (Ed.), Management of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug problems (pp. 76-86). Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.Google Scholar
  36. Kranzler, H. R., Kadden, R. M., Babor, T. F., Tennen, H., & Rounsaville, B. J. (1996). Validity of the SCID in substance abuse patients. Addiction, 91, 859-868.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Larimer, M. E., & Kilmer, J. R. (2000). Natural history. In G. Zernig, A. Saria, M. Kurz & S. O’Malley (Eds.), Handbook of alcoholism (pp. 13-28). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  38. Mayfield, D., McLeod, G., & Hall, P. (1974). The CAGE questionnaire: Validation of a new alcoholism screening instrument. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 1121-1123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. McLellan, A. T., Kushner, H., Metzger, D., Peters, R., Smith, I., Grissom, G., et al. (1992). The fifth edition of the Addiction Severity Index. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 9, 199-213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. McLellan, A. T., Luborsky, L., Cacciola, J., & Griffith, J. (1985). New data from the Addiction Severity Index: Reliability and validity in three centers. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 173, 412-423.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. McLellan, A. T., Luborsky, L., O’Brien, C. P., & Woody, G. E. (1980). An improved diagnostic instrument for substance abuse patients: The Addiction Severity Index. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 168, 26-33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. McNeece, C. A., & DiNitto, D. M. (1998). Chemical dependence. A systems approach (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  43. Miller, W. R. (1996). Manual for Form 90: A structured interview for drinking and related behaviors (Project Match Monograph Series, Vol. 5). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.Google Scholar
  44. Miller, W. R., & Marlatt, G. A. (1984). Manual for the Comprehensive Drinker Profile. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  45. Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (1991). Using assessment results. In W. R. Miller & S. Rollnick (Eds.), Motivational interviewing (pp. 89-99). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  46. Miller, W. R., & Tonigan, J. S. (1996). Assessing drinkers’ motivation for change: The Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 10, 81-89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Miller, W. R., Tonigan, J. S., & Longabaugh, R. (1995). The Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DrInC). Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health.Google Scholar
  48. NIAAA. (2005). Helping patients who drink too much. Clinicians guide. Washington, DC: National Institute of Health.Google Scholar
  49. Obot, I. S., & Room, R. (2005). Alcohol, gender and social problems. Perspectives from low and middle income countries. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  50. Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992). In search of how people change: Applications to addictive behaviors. The American Psychologist, 47, 1102-1114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Raistrick, D., Dunbar, G., & Davidson, R. (1983). Development of a questionnaire to measure alcohol dependence. British Journal of Addiction, 78, 89-95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Reinert, D. F., & Allen, J. P. (2002). The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): A review of recent research. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 26, 272-279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Rice, C. (2007). Retest reliability of self-reported daily drinking: Form 90. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 68, 615-618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Rikoon, S. H., Cacciola, J. S., Carise, D., Alterman, A. I., & McLellan, T. A. (2006). Predicting DSM-IV dependence diagnoses from Addiction Severity Index composite scores. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 3, 17-24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Robins, L. N., Helzer, J. E., Cottler, L. B., & Goldring, E. (1998). The Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Version IV. MO: St. Louis.Google Scholar
  56. Rollnick, S., Heather, N., Gold, R., & Hall, W. (1992). Development of a short “Readiness to Change” questionnaire for use in brief opportunistic interventions. British Journal of Addiction, 87, 743-754.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Rosenberg, H. (1993). Prediction of controlled drinking by alcoholics and problem drinkers. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 129-139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Russell, M., Martier, S. S., Sokol, R. J., Mudar, P., Bottoms, S., Jacobson, S., et al. (1994). Screening for pregnancy risk-drinking. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 18, 1156-1161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Schuckit, M. A. (2000). Drug and alcohol abuse: A clinical guide to diagnosis and treatment (5th ed.). New York: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  60. Selzer, M. L. (1971). The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test: The quest for a new diagnostic instrument. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 1653-1658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Selzer, M. L., Vinoker, A., & van Rooijen, L. (1975). The 13-item Short MAST (SMAST). Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 36, 117-126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Skinner, H. A., & Allen, B. A. (1982). Alcohol dependence syndrome: Measurement and validation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91, 199-209.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Skinner, H. A., & Sheu, W. J. (1982). Reliability of alcohol use indices: The Lifetime Drinking History and the MAST. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 43, 1157-1170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Sobell, L. C., & Sobell, M. B. (1992). Timeline Followback: A technique for assessing self-reported ethanol consumption. In J. Allen & R. Z. Litten (Eds.), Measuring alcohol consumption: Psychosocial and biological methods (pp. 41-72). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.Google Scholar
  65. Sobell, L. C., & Sobell, M. B. (2003). Assessment of drinking behavior. In J. P. Allen & V. B. Wilson (Eds.), Assessing alcohol problems. A guide for clinicians and researchers (2nd ed., pp. 75-99). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.Google Scholar
  66. Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B. W., Kroenke, K., Linzer, M., deGruy, F. V., Hahn, S. R., et al. (1994). Utility of a new procedure for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care. The PRIME MD 1000 Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 272, 1749-1756.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Squires, D. D., & Hester, R. K. (2002). Development of a computer-based brief intervention for drinkers: The increasing role for computers in the assessment and treatment of addictive behaviors. The Behavior Therapist, 25, 59-65.Google Scholar
  68. Tien, A. Y., Schlaepfer, T. E., & Fisch, H. (1998). Self-reported somatization symptoms associated with risk for extreme drinking. Archives of Family Medicine, 7, 33-37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Tonigan, J. S., Miller, W. R., & Brown, J. M. (1997). The reliability of Form 90: An instrument for assessing alcohol treatment outcome. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 58, 358-364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (n.d.) Summary of findings from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Retrieved January 10, 2008, from http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/WebOnly.htm#NSDUHtabs. Tables retrieved January 10, 2008, from http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2k7NSDUH/tabs/LOTSect2pe.htm.
  71. Winokur, G., & Black, D. W. (1987). Psychiatric and medical diagnoses as risk factors for mortality in psychiatric patients: A case-control study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 208-211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. World Health Organization. (1997). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview - version 2.1. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • David C. Hodgins
    • 1
  • Katherine Diskin
    • 1
  • Jonathan N. Stea
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations