Anthrax: A Disease and a Weapon

  • Kenneth Alibek
  • Catherine Lobanova
  • Serguei Popov
Part of the Emerging Infectious Diseases of the 21st Century book series (EIDC)


Anthrax infection was described in ancient literature and religious writings. Some biblical scholars have interpreted descriptions of two of the plagues that struck Egypt around 1500 B.C. as anthrax epidemics. The 5th plague, as described in the book of Exodus, is a plague of grievous murrain (an infectious and fast-spreading disease) that affected livestock (Witkowski, 2002). The description of the 6th plague, or the Plague of Boils, is very similar to the symptoms of cutaneous anthrax (raised inflammatory swelling and blisters also suggest anthrax) (, 2001).


Protective Antigen Lethal Factor Biological Weapon Anthrax Toxin Edema Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors wish to acknowledge Ms. Kathryn Crockett, Dr. Alison Andrews, and Mrs. Muffarah Jahangeer for their assistance in preparing this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth Alibek
    • 1
  • Catherine Lobanova
    • 1
  • Serguei Popov
    • 1
  1. 1.The National Center for BiodefenseGeorge Mason UniversityManassas

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