Blood Flow and Arterial Vessel Diameter Change During Graded Handgrip Exercise in Dominant and Non-dominant Forearms of Tennis Players

  • Atsuko Kagaya
  • Fumiko Ohmori
  • Shizuyo Okuyama
  • Yoshiho Muraoka
  • Kohei Sato
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 662)


The training effect on exercise-induced maximal blood flow remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference of exercise-induced blood flow, blood flow velocity and vessel diameter of brachial artery in dominant and non-dominant forearms of tennis players during graded hand-grip exercise. Ten female tennis players aged 20.1 ± 0.1 years. (mean ± SD) performed 30-s static handgrip exercise in the supine position with either the dominant or non-dominant hand by increasing load at 30-s intervals until exhaustion. Brachial arterial blood flow velocity (Doppler ultrasound method) did not differ between both limbs, whereas the vessel diameter (2-D method) was significantly larger in the dominant limb during diastole both at baseline (p < 0.01) and after exercise (p < 0.05), but no difference was found during systole. As a result, the blood flow was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the dominant limb during post-exercise condition. Muscle thickness of the forearm muscles and maximal handgrip strength were significantly higher in the dominant limb. Thus, the effect of training on exercise-induced blood flow specific to the dominant limb was confirmed during post-exercise due to the enlarged vessel diameter during diastole of cardiac cycle. The dimensional change in the vasculature specific to the dominant side will be included in the training effects associated with the dimensional muscular changes in the dominant forearm.


Maximal Voluntary Contraction Blood Flow Velocity Vessel Diameter Muscle Thickness Tennis Player 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by the “Academic Frontier” project of Japan Women’s College of Physical Education. The authors are grateful to Ms A. Mori (Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University) for her help in analyzing data.


  1. 1.
    Allen JD, Geaghan JP, Greenway F, Welsche A. (2003) Time course of improved flow-mediated dilation after short-term exercise training. Med Sci Sports & Exerc 35:847–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baynard T, Miller WC, Fernhall B. (2003) Effects of exercise on vasodilatory capacity in endurance- and resistance-trained men. Eur J Appl Physiol 89:69–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bleeker MW, De Groot PC, Poelkens F, Rongen GA, Smits P, Hopman MT. (2005) Vascular adaptation to 4 week of deconditioning by unilateral lower limb suspension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 288:H1747–H1755.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bleeker MW, De Groot PC, Rongen GA, Rittweger J, Felsenberg D, Smits P, Hopman MT. (2005) Vascular adaptation to deconditioning and the effect of an exercise countermeasure: results of the Berlin Bed Rest study. J Appl Physiol 99:1293–1300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clarkson P, Montgomery HE, Mullen MJ, Donald AE, Powe AJ, Bull T, Jubb M, World M, Deanfield JE. (1999) Exercise training enhances endothelial function in young men. J Am Coll Cardiol 33:1379–1385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dinenno FA, Tanaka H, Monahan KD, Clevenger CM, Eskurza I, DeSouza CA, Seals DR. (2001) Regular endurance exercise induces expansive arterial remodelling in the trained limbs of healthy men. J Physiol 534:287–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Green DJ, Fowler DT, O'Driscoll JG, Blanksby BA, Taylor RR. (1996) Endothelium-derived nitric oxide activity in forearm vessels of tennis players. J Appl Physiol 81:943–948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huonker M, Schmid A, Schmidt-Trucksass A, Grathwohl D, Keul J. (2003) Size and blood flow of central and peripheral arteries in highly trained able-bodied and disabled athletes. J Appl Physiol 95:685–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kagaya, A. (1994) Maximal exercise-induced vasodilation and peak pulmonary oxygen uptake during dynamic forearm and calf exercise. J Exer Sci 4:55–62.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Maxwell AJ, Schauble E, Bernstein D, Cooke JP. (1998) Limb blood flow during exercise is dependent on nitric oxide. Circulation 98:369–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Miyachi M, Iemitsu M, Okutsu M, Onodera S. (1998) Effects of endurance training on the size and blood flow of the arterial conductance vessels in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 163:13–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Miyachi M, Tanaka H, Yamamoto K, Yoshioka A, Takahashi K, Onodera S.(2001) Effects of one-legged endurance training on femoral arterial and venous size in healthy humans. J Appl Physiol 90:2439–2444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schmidt-Trucksäss A, Schmid A, Brunner C, Scherer N, Zäch G, Keul J, Huonker M.(2000) Arterial properties of the carotid and femoral artery in endurance-trained and paraplegic subjects. J Appl Physiol 89:1956–1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sinoway LI, Musch TI, Minotti JR, Zelis R. (1986) Enhanced maximal metabolic vasodilatation in the dominant forearms of tennis players. J Appl Physiol 61:673–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sinoway LI, Shenberger J, Wilson J, McLaughlin D, Musch T. (1987) A 30-day forearm work protocol increases maximal forearm blood flow. J Appl Physiol 62:1063–1067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sinoway L, Prophet S. (1990) Skeletal muscle metaboreceptor stimulation opposes peak metabolic vasodilation in humans. Circ Res 66:1576–1584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sjφgaard G, Kiens B, Jorgensen K, Saltin B.(1986) Intramuscular pressure, EMG and blood flow during low-level prolonged static contraction in man. Acta Physiol Scand 128:475–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atsuko Kagaya
    • 1
  • Fumiko Ohmori
    • 1
  • Shizuyo Okuyama
    • 2
  • Yoshiho Muraoka
    • 3
  • Kohei Sato
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Institute of Physical Fitness, Japan Women’s College of Physical EducationTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Institute of Physical Education, Keio UniversityKanagawaJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of Humanities and Social SciencesMeisei UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations