Muscle Oxygen Saturation Measured Using “Cyclic NIR Signals” During Exercise

  • Terence S. Leung
  • Anna Wittekind
  • Tiziano Binzoni
  • Ralph Beneke
  • Chris E. Cooper
  • Clare E. Elwell
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 662)


A new approach to measure muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been proposed in this paper. This approach exploits the cyclic NIRS signals seen during exercise which are often regarded as “movement artefacts”. This new measure, which we term the “cyclic SmO2”, has the potential to be less affected by the myoglobin which is traditionally believed to be indistinguishable from haemoglobin using NIRS techniques. The cyclic SmO2 also has fewer assumptions than the conventional SmO2 measured using time, phase and spatially resolved spectroscopy methods. In a cycling exercise study, NIRS measurements were made over the Vastus lateralis muscle of 11 subjects. In a light exercise protocol, the group mean of the conventional SmO2 was 51.7 ± 4.3% and that of the cyclic SmO2 was 56.0 ± 3.9%. It was immediately followed by a hard exercise protocol and the group mean of the conventional SmO2 was reduced to 42.6 ± 6.1% and that of the cyclic SmO2 to 48.5 ± 5.6%. The reduction agrees with the general expectation. The cyclic SmO2 is a promising new measure of muscle oxygenation.


Discrete Fourier Transform Near Infrared Spectroscopy Muscle Blood Flow Light Exercise Cyclic Signal 
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The authors would like to thank Hamamatsu Photonics KK. and the EPSRC (EP/F006551/1) for their financial support of this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Terence S. Leung
    • 1
  • Anna Wittekind
    • 2
  • Tiziano Binzoni
    • 3
  • Ralph Beneke
    • 2
  • Chris E. Cooper
    • 4
  • Clare E. Elwell
    • 5
  1. 1.Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Physics and BioengineeringUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of Essex, Colchester EssexEssexUK
  3. 3.Département de l’Imagerie et des Sciences de l’Information MédicaleUniversity Hospital, and Département des Neurosciences FondamentalesUni. of GenevaSwitzerland
  4. 4.Department of Biological SciencesCentre for Sports and Exercise Science, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, EssexColchesterUK
  5. 5.Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Physics and BioengineeringUniversity College LondonLondonUK

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