Laparoscopy in Gynecologic Malignancies

  • R. Wendel Naumann


Laparoscopic and minimally invasive approaches have been described in the surgical treatment of almost all aspects of gynecologic oncology surgery including pelvic masses, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, and cervical cancer. However, the widespread use of laparoscopy in this setting has been limited. Lack of long-term outcome data, increased surgical times, and the need for retraining have been major obstacles to the use of minimally invasive surgery for gynecologic malignancies and complex gynecologic surgery.


Ovarian Cancer Cervical Cancer Sentinel Node Endometrial Cancer Vaginal Hysterectomy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Kilgore LC, Partridge EE, Alvarez RD et al (1995) Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: survival comparisons of patients with and without pelvic node sampling. Gynecol Oncol 56:29–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Merrill RM (2008) Hysterectomy surveillance in the United States, 1997 through 2005. Med Sci Monit 14:CR24–CR31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Keshavarz H, Hillis SD, Kieke BA, Marchbanks PA (2002) Hysterectomy surveillance – Untied States, 1994–1999. MMWR 51:1Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Querleu D, Leblanc E, Castelain B (1991) Laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy in the staging of early carcinoma of the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 164:579–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Childers JM, Brzechffa PR, Hatch KD, Surwit EA (1993) Laparoscopically assisted surgical staging (LASS) of endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 51:33–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Makinen J, Johansson J, Tomas C et al (2001) Morbidity of 10 110 hysterectomies by type of approach. Hum Reprod 16:1473–1478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    O’Hanlan KA, Lopez L, Dibble SL et al (2003) Total laparoscopic hysterectomy: body mass index and outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 102:1384–1392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang PH, Lee WL, Yuan CC et al (2001) Major complications of operative and diagnostic laparoscopy for gynecologic disease [see comment]. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 8:68–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Johnson N, Barlow D, Lethaby A et al (2005) Methods of hysterectomy: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 330:1478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koh CH (1998) A new technique and system for simplifying total laparoscopic hysterectomy. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 5:187–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Le T, Adolph A, Krepart GV et al (2002) The benefits of comprehensive surgical staging in the management of early-stage epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 85:351–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Naumann RW, Higgins RV, Hall JB (1999) The use of adjuvant radiation therapy by members of the Society of Gynecologic Oncologists. Gynecol Oncol 75:4–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Roland PY, Kelly FJ, Kulwicki CY et al (2004) The benefits of a gynecologic oncologist: a pattern of care study for endometrial cancer treatment. Gynecol Oncol 93:125–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Spirtos NM, Eisekop SM, Boike G et al (2005) Laparoscopic staging in patients with incompletely staged cancers of the uterus, ovary, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneum: a Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 193:1645–1649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E et al (2008) Cancer statistics, 2008. CA Cancer J Clin 58:71–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    FIGO (1989) Annual report on the results of treatment in gynecologic cancer. Int J Gynecol Obstet 28:189–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Naumann RW, Coleman RL (2007) The use of adjuvant radiation therapy in early endometrial cancer by members of the Society of Gynecologic Oncologists in 2005. Gynecol Oncol 105:7–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chan JK, Wu H, Cheung MK et al (2007) The outcomes of 27,063 women with unstaged endometrioid uterine cancer. Gynecol Oncol 106:282–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2005) ACOG practice bulletin, clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists, number 65, August 2005: management of endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 106:413–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Childers JM, Surwit EA (1992) Combined laparoscopic and vaginal surgery for the management of two cases of stage I endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 45:46–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Melendez TD, Childers JM, Nour M et al (1997) Laparoscopic staging of endometrial cancer: the learning experience. JSLS 1:45–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Eltabbakh GH (2000) Effect of surgeon’s experience on the surgical outcome of laparoscopic surgery for women with endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 78:58–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Abu-Rustum NR, Alektiar K, Iasonos A et al (2006) The incidence of symptomatic lower-extremity lymphedema following treatment of uterine corpus malignancies: a 12-year experience at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Gynecol Oncol 103:714–718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Spirtos NM, Schlaerth JB, Gross GM et al (1996) Cost and quality-of-life analyses of surgery for early endometrial cancer: laparotomy versus laparoscopy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 174:1795–1799, discussion 1799–800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Walker J, Mannel R, Piedmonte M et al (2006) Phase III trial of laparoscopy versus laparotomy for surgicalresection and comprehensive surgical staging of uterine cancer: A Gynecologic Oncology Group study funded by the National Cancer Institute. Gynecol Oncol 101:SGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kornblith A, Walker J, Huang H, Cella D (2006) Quality of life of patients in a randomized clincal trial of laparoscopy versus open laparotomy for the surgical resection and stagin of uterine cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 101:S22Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Eltabbakh GH (2002) Analysis of survival after laparoscopy in women with endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 95:1894–1901PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Malur S, Possover M, Michels W, Schneider A (2001) Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal versus abdominal surgery in patients with endometrial cancer – a prospective randomized trial. Gynecol Oncol 80:239–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Leiserowitz G, Xing G, Parihk-Patel A et al (2007) Survival of endometrial cancer patients after laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy or total abdominal hysterectomy: Analysis of risk factors. Gynecol Oncol 104:SGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gil-Moreno A, Diaz-Feijoo B, Morchon S, Xercavins J (2006) Analysis of survival after laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy compared with the conventional abdominal approach for early-stage endometrial carcinoma: a review of the literature. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 13: 26–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sonoda Y, Zerbe M, Smith A et al (2001) High incidence of positive peritoneal cytology in low-risk endometrial cancer treated by laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy [see comment]. Gynecol Oncol 80:378–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kalogiannidis I, Lambrechts S, Amant F et al (2007) Laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy compared with abdominal hysterectomy in clinical stage I endometrial cancer: safety, recurrence, and long-term outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 196(248):e1–e8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Eltabbakh GH, Mount SL (2006) Laparoscopic surgery does not increase the positive peritoneal cytology among women with endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 100:361–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Spanos WJ (1973) Preoperative hormonal therapy of cystic adnexal masses. Am J Obstet Gynecol 116:551–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    ACOG Practice Bulletin (2007) Management of adnexal masses. Obstet Gynecol 110:201–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rulin MC, Preston AL (1987) Adnexal masses in postmenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol 70:578–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Medeiros LR, Fachel JMG, Garry R et al (2005) Laparoscopy versus laparotomy for benign ovarian tumours. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev 3:CD004751Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    (2000) Guidelines for referral to a gynecologic oncologist: rationale and benefits. The Society of Gynecologic Oncologists. Gynecol Oncol 78:S1–S13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Im SS, Gordon AN, Buttin BM et al (2005) Validation of referral guidelines for women with pelvic masses. Obstet Gynecol 105:35–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dearking AC, Aletti GD, McGree ME et al (2007) How relevant are ACOG and SGO guidelines for referral of adnexal mass? Obstet Gynecol 110:841–848PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    DePriest PD, Varner E, Powell J et al (1994) The efficacy of a sonographic morphology index in identifying ovarian cancer: a multi-institutional investigation. Gynecol Oncol 55:174–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Eichel L, Abdelshehid C, Lee DI et al (2004) In vitro comparison of burst tension and puncture pressure in commonly used organ retrieval bags. J Am Coll Surg 199:166–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Havrilesky LJ, Peterson BL, Dryden DK et al (2003) Predictors of clinical outcomes in the laparoscopic management of adnexal masses. Obstet Gynecol 102:243–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yuen PM, Yu KM, Yip SK et al (1997) A randomized prospective study of laparoscopy and laparotomy in the management of benign ovarian masses. Am J Obstet Gynecol 177:109–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fanfani F, Fagotti A, Ercoli A et al (2004) A prospective randomized study of laparoscopy and minilaparotomy in the management of benign adnexal masses. Hum Reprod 19:2367–2371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Staging Announcement (1986) FIGO cancer committee. Gynecol Oncol 25:383–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dembo AJ, Davy M, Stenwig AE et al (1990) Prognostic factors in patients with stage I epithelial ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol 75:263–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kodama S, Tanaka K, Tokunaga A et al (1997) Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in patients with ovarian cancer stage I and II. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 56:147–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sevelda P, Dittrich C, Salzer H (1989) Prognostic value of the rupture of the capsule in stage I epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 35:321–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Barnhill DR, Kurman RJ, Brady MF et al (1995) Preliminary analysis of the behavior of stage I ovarian serous tumors of low malignant potential: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 13:2752–2756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Seidman JD, Kurman RJ (2000) Ovarian serous borderline tumors: a critical review of the literature with emphasis on prognostic indicators. Hum Pathol 31:539–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Poncelet C, Fauvet R, Boccara J, Darai E (2006) Recurrence after cystectomy for borderline ovarian tumors: results of a French multicenter study. Ann Surg Oncol 13: 565–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Swanton A, Bankhead CR, Kehoe S (2007) Pregnancy rates after conservative treatment for borderline ovarian tumours: a systematic review. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 135:3–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Piver MS, Barlow JJ, Lele SB (1978) Incidence of subclinical metastasis in stage I and II ovarian carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 52:100–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Takeshima N, Hirai Y, Umayahara K et al (2005) Lymph node metastasis in ovarian cancer: difference between serous and non-serous primary tumors. Gynecol Oncol 99:427–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Reich H, McGlynn F, Wilkie W (1990) Laparoscopic management of stage I ovarian cancer. A case report. J Reprod Med 35:601–604, discussion 604–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Correa JJ, Politis C, Rodriguez AR, Pow-Sang JM (2007) Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in the management of testis cancer. Cancer Control 14:258–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Janetschek G, Hobisch A, Holtl L, Bartsch G (1996) Retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for clinical stage I nonseminomatous testicular tumor: laparoscopy versus open surgery and impact of learning curve. J Urol 156:89–93, discussion 94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Steiner H, Peschel R, Janetschek G et al (2004) Long-term results of laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection: a single-center 10-year experience. Urology 63:550–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Plante M (2000) Fertility preservation in the management of gynecologic cancers. Curr Opin Oncol 12:497–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Colombo N, Parma G, Lapresa MT et al (2005) Role of conservative surgery in ovarian cancer: the European experience. Int J Gynecol Cancer 15(Suppl 3):206–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zanetta G, Chiari S, Rota S et al (1997) Conservative surgery for stage I ovarian carcinoma in women of childbearing age. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 104:1030–1035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Deffieux X, Castaigne D, Pomel C (2006) Role of laparoscopy to evaluate candidates for complete cytoreduction in advanced stages of epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer 16(Suppl 1):35–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fagotti A, Ferrandina G, Fanfani F et al (2006) A laparoscopy-based score to predict surgical outcome in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma: a pilot study. Ann Surg Oncol 13:1156–1161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ansquer Y, Leblanc E, Clough K et al (2001) Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for unresectable ovarian carcinoma: a French multicenter study. Cancer 91:2329–2334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wangensteen OH, Lewis FJ, Tongen LA (1951) The “second-look” in cancer surgery; a patient with colic cancer and involved lymph nodes negative on the “sixth-look”. J Lancet 71:303–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ozols RF, Bundy BN, Greer BE et al (2003) Phase III trial of carboplatin and paclitaxel compared with cisplatin and paclitaxel in patients with optimally resected stage III ovarian cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 21:3194–3200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Berek JS, Griffiths CT, Leventhal JM (1981) Laparoscopy for second-look evaluation in ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol 58:192–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ozols RF, Fisher RI, Anderson T et al (1981) Peritoneoscopy in the management of ovarian cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 140:611–619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Piver MS, Lele SB, Barlow JJ, Gamarra M (1980) Second-look laparoscopy prior to proposed second-look laparotomy. Obstet Gynecol 55:571–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Abu-Rustum NR, Barakat RR, Siegel PL et al (1996) Second-look operation for epithelial ovarian cancer: laparoscopy or laparotomy? Obstet Gynecol 88: 549–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chi DS, Abu-Rustum NR, Sonoda Y et al (2006) Laparoscopic and hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy for recurrent and persistent ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 101:224–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Krivak TC, Elkas JC, Rose GS et al (2005) The utility of hand-assisted laparoscopy in ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 96:72–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Clarke JG (1895) A more radical method for performing hysterectomy for cancer of the uterus. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 6:120Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sonoda Y, Abu-Rustum NR (2007) Schauta radical vaginal hysterectomy. Gynecol Oncol 104:20–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fowler JM, Carter JR, Carlson JW et al (1993) Lymph node yield from laparoscopic lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer: a comparative study. Gynecol Oncol 51:187–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Johnson N (1994) Laparoscopic versus conventional pelvic lymphadenectomy for gynaecological malignancy in humans. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 101:902–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lanvin D, Elhage A, Henry B et al (1997) Accuracy and safety of laparoscopic lymphadenectomy: an experimental prospective randomized study. Gynecol Oncol 67: 83–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Possover M, Krause N, Plaul K et al (1998) Laparoscopic para-aortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy: experience with 150 patients and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol 71:19–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Roy M, Plante M, Renaud MC, Tetu B (1996) Vaginal radical hysterectomy versus abdominal radical hysterectomy in the treatment of early-stage cervical cancer [see comment]. Gynecol Oncol 62:336–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Dargent D, Martin X, Mathevet P (2000) Laparoscopic assessment of the sentinel lymph node in early stage cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol 79:411–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kushner DM, Connor JP, Wilson MA et al (2007) Laparoscopic sentinel lymph node mapping for cervix cancer–a detailed evaluation and time analysis. Gynecol Oncol 106:507–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Barranger E, Coutant C, Cortez A et al (2005) Sentinel node biopsy is reliable in early-stage cervical cancer but not in locally advanced disease. Ann Oncol 16:1237–1242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Coutant C, Morel O, Delpech Y et al (2007) Laparoscopic sentinel node biopsy in cervical cancer using a combined detection: 5-years experience. Ann Surg Oncol 14: 2392–2399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Marchiole P, Benchaib M, Buenerd A et al (2007) Oncological safety of laparoscopic-assisted vaginal radical trachelectomy (LARVT or Dargent’s operation): a comparative study with laparoscopic-assisted vaginal radical hysterectomy (LARVH). Gynecol Oncol 106:132–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Liang Z, Xu H, Chen Y et al (2006) Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy or parametrectomy and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy for cervical or vaginal stump carcinoma: report of six cases. Int J Gynecol Cancer 16:1713–1716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Puntambekar S, Kudchadkar RJ, Gurjar AM et al (2006) Laparoscopic pelvic exenteration for advanced pelvic cancers: a review of 16 cases. Gynecol Oncol 102:513–516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pomel C, Castaigne D (2004) Laparoscopic hand-assisted Miami Pouch following laparoscopic anterior pelvic exenteration. Gynecol Oncol 93:543–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lanciano RM, Martz K, Montana GS, Hanks GE (1992) Influence of age, prior abdominal surgery, fraction size, and dose on complications after radiation therapy for squamous cell cancer of the uterine cervix. A patterns of care study. Cancer 69:2124–2130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Matsuura Y, Kawagoe T, Toki N et al (2006) Long-standing complications after treatment for cancer of the uterine cervix–clinical significance of medical examination at 5 years after treatment. Int J Gynecol Cancer 16:294–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 92.
    Hidlebaugh DA, Orr RK (1997) Staging endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Clinical and financial comparison of laparoscopic and traditional approaches. J Reprod Med 42:482–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 93.
    Bajaj PK, Barnes MN, Robertson MW et al (1999) Surgical management of endometrial adenocarcinoma using laparoscopically assisted staging and treatment. South Med J 92:1174–1177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 94.
    Gemignani ML, Curtin JP, Zelmanovich J et al (1999) Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy for endometrial cancer: clinical outcomes and hospital charges [see comment]. Gynecol Oncol 73:5–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 95.
    Eltabbakh GH, Shamonki MI, Moody JM, Garafano LL (2001) Laparoscopy as the primary modality for the treatment of women with endometrial carcinoma. Cancer 91:378–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 96.
    Scribner DR Jr, Walker JL, Johnson GA et al (2001) Laparoscopic pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection: analysis of the first 100 cases. Gynecol Oncol 82:498–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 97.
    Holub Z, Jabor A, Bartos P et al (2002) Laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of endometrial cancer: results of a multicenter study. J Soc Laparoendosc Surg 6:125–131Google Scholar
  97. 98.
    Langebrekke A, Istre O, Hallqvist AC et al (2002) Comparison of laparoscopy and laparotomy in patients with endometrial cancer. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 9:152–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 99.
    Manolitsas TP, Fowler JM (2001) Role of laparoscopy in the management of the adnexal mass and staging of gynecologic cancers. Clin Obstet Gynecol 44:495–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 100.
    Kuoppala T, Tomas E, Heinonen PK (2004) Clinical outcome and complications of laparoscopic surgery compared with traditional surgery in women with endometrial cancer. Arch Gynecol Obstet 270:25–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 101.
    Obermair A, Manolitsas TP, Leung Y et al (2004) Total laparoscopic hysterectomy for endometrial cancer: patterns of recurrence and survival. Gynecol Oncol 92: 789–793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 102.
    Barwijuk A, Jankowska S (2005) Is laparoscopic or abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy more efficient in operative treatment of endometrial cancer? J Obstet Gynaecol 25:703–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 103.
    Kim R, Rose PG (2005) Surgical staging of gynecologic malignancies: the role of laparoscopy and sentinel node technology. Surg Oncol Clin North Am 14:267–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 104.
    Tozzi R, Malur S, Koehler C, Schneider A (2005) Analysis of morbidity in patients with endometrial cancer: is there a commitment to offer laparoscopy? [see comment]. Gynecol Oncol 97:4–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 105.
    Wong CK, Wong YH, Lo LSF et al (2005) Laparoscopy compared with laparotomy for the surgical staging of endometrial carcinoma. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 31: 286–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 106.
    Zorlu CG, Simsek T, Ari ES (2005) Laparoscopy or laparotomy for the management of endometrial cancer. J Soc Laparoendosc Surg 9:442–446Google Scholar
  106. 107.
    Frigerio L, Gallo A, Ghezzi F et al (2006) Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy versus abdominal hysterectomy in endometrial cancer. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 93: 209–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 108.
    Cho Y-H, Kim D-Y, Kim J-H et al (2007) Laparoscopic management of early uterine cancer: 10-year experience in Asan Medical Center. Gynecol Oncol 106:585–590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 109.
    Eisenhauer EL, Wypych KA, Mehrara BJ et al (2007) Comparing surgical outcomes in obese women undergoing laparotomy, laparoscopy, or laparotomy with panniculectomy for the staging of uterine malignancy. Ann Surg Oncol 14:2384–2391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 91.
    Yuen PM, Lo KW, Rogers MS (1995) A comparison of laparotomy and laparoscopy in the management of ovarian masses. J Gynecol Surg 11:19–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Deckardt R, Saks M, Graeff H (1994) Comparison of minimally invasive surgery and laparotomy in the treatment of adnexal masses. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 1: 333–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Spirtos NM, Eisenkop SM, Schlaerth JB, Ballon SC (2002) Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (type III) with aortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients with stage I cervical cancer: surgical morbidity and intermediate follow-up. Am J Obstet Gynecol 187:340–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Pomel C, Atallah D, Le Bouedec G et al (2003) Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy for invasive cervical cancer: 8-year experience of a pilot study. Gynecol Oncol 91:534–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ramirez PT, Slomovitz BM, Soliman PT et al (2006) Total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy: the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center experience [see comment]. Gynecol Oncol 102:252–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Xu H, Chen Y, Li Y et al (2007) Complications of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy for invasive cervical cancer: experience based on 317 procedures. Surg Endosc 21:960–964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Malzoni M, Malzoni C, Perone C et al (2004) Total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (type III) and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 25:525–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Vidal O, Garza-Leal JG (1996) Laparoscopy versus laparotomy for radical hysterectomy. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 3:S53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Abu-Rustum NR, Gemignani ML, Moore K et al (2003) Total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy using the argon-beam coagulator: pilot data and comparison to laparotomy. Gynecol Oncol 91:402–409 [erratum appears in Gynecol Oncol. 2004 Apr;93(1):275]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Zakashansky K, Chuang L, Gretz H et al (2007) A case-controlled study of total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy versus radical abdominal hysterectomy in a fellowship training program. Int J Gynecol Cancer 17:1075–1082PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Shafer A, Boggess J, Gehrig PA et al (2007) Type III radical hysterectomy for obsese women with cervical carcinoma: robotic versus open. Gynecol Oncol 104:SGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Li G, Yan X, Shang H et al (2007) A comparison of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy and laparotomy in the treatment of Ib-IIa cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol 105:176–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kim DH, Moon JS (1998) Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy for early, invasive cervical carcinoma. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 5: 411–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Magrina JF, Kho RM, Weaver AL et al (2008) Robotic radical hysterectomy: comparison with laparoscopy and laparotomy. Gynecol Oncol 109:86–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Fanning J, Fenton B, Purohit M (2008) Robotic radical hysterectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 198(649):e1–e4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Nezhat F, Yadav J, Rahaman J, Grez H, and Cohen C (2008) Analysis of Survival after Laparoscopic Management of Endometrial Cancer. J Min Inv Gynecol 15(2):181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Wendel Naumann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyCarolinas Medical CenterCharlotteUSA

Personalised recommendations