• Jan Dirk Blom


A Dutch post-impressionist painter who suffered from severe headaches, *nightmares, epileptic seizures, *tinnitus, hallucinations, and other *perceptual disturbances, who cut off his left ear lobe, and who shot himself in 1890. The hallucinations van Gogh experienced included *verbal and *nonverbal auditory hallucinations, *musical hallucinations, and *visual hallucinations. The etiology of these phenomena has been heavily debated. In the literature no less than 30 different diagnoses have been suggested, including *schizophrenia, neurosyphilis, bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, temporal lobe epilepsy, alcoholism, *absinthism, tuberculous meningoencephalitis, acute intermittent porphyria, Ménière’s disease, brain tumour, and sunstroke.


Visual Hallucination Auditory Hallucination Borderline Personality Disorder Visual Illusion Visual Aura 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Dirk Blom
    • 1
  1. 1.Parnassia Bavo Group & University of GroningenThe HagueThe Netherlands

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