Matching Without Groups
Optimal matching without groups, or optimal nonbipartite matching, offers many additional options for matched designs in both observational studies and experiments. One starts with a square, symmetric distance matrix with one row and one column for each subject recording the distance between any two subjects. Then the subjects are divided into pairs to minimize the total distance within pairs. The method may be used to match with doses of treatment, or with multiple control groups, or as an aid to risk-set matching. An extended discussion of Card and Krueger’s study of the minimum wage is used to illustrate.
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