Advertisement

Task Engagement, Attention, and Executive Control

  • Gerald Matthews
  • Joel S. Warm
  • Lauren E. Reinerman
  • Lisa K. Langheim
  • Dyani J. Saxby
Chapter
Part of the The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality book series (SSHE)

Abstract

There is a conventional tale of stress, attention, and performance that goes as follows. External stressors, such as noise and threat, elevate the general arousal of the cerebral cortex, which in turn impacts the efficiency of information-processing and performance. According to the inverted-U principle, both the excessive arousal evoked by stimulating agents and the under-arousal associated with fatigue and sleep loss lead to impairment of attention. Unfortunately, this simple story is untrue. At the heart of the problem is the complexity of both arousal and attention. In this chapter, we will review the more subtle narrative that is emerging from studies of individual differences in subjective arousal.

Keywords

Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity Vigilance Task Avoidance Coping Resource Theory Task Engagement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Some of this work was supported by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command under Contract No. DAMD17-04-C-0002. The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. In the conduct of research where humans are the subjects, the investigator(s) adhered to the policies regarding the protection of human subjects as prescribed by 45 CFR 46 and 32 CFR 219 (Protection of Human Subjects).

References

  1. Aaslid, R. (1986). Transcranial Doppler examination techniques. In R. Aaslid (Ed.), Transcranial Doppler sonography (pp. 39–59). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44, 1175–1184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrett, L. F., & Wager, D. (2006). The structure of emotion: Evidence from neuroimaging studies. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berridge, K. C., & Kringelbach, L. (2008). Affective neuroscience of pleasure: Reward in humans and animals. Psychopharmacology, 199, 457–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Broadhurst, P. L. (1957). Emotionality and the Yerkes-Dodson Law. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54, 345–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burgdorf, J., & Panksepp, J. (2006). The neurobiology of positive emotions. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 173–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2005). Engagement, disengagement, coping, and catastrophe. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 527–547). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  8. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2009). Self-regulation and control in personality functioning. In P. J. Corr & G. Matthews (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of personality (pp. 427–440). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Corr, P. J. (2008). Reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST): Introduction. In P. L. Corr (Ed.), The reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality (pp. 1–43). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davies, D. R., & Parasuraman, R. (1982). The psychology of vigilance. London: Academic.Google Scholar
  11. Desmond, P. A., & Hancock, P. A. (2001). Active and passive fatigue states. In P. A. Hancock & P. A. Desmond (Eds.), Stress, workload and fatigue (pp. 455–465). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  12. Dickman, S. J. (2002). Dimensions of arousal: Wakefulness and vigor. Human Factors, 44, 429–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dweck, C. S. (1999). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality and development. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  14. Ekman, P. (2003). METT. Micro expression training tool. CD-Rom. Available from http://www.emotionsrevealed.com
  15. Eysenck, H. J. (1967). The biological basis of personality. Springfield, IL: Thomas.Google Scholar
  16. Eysenck, M. W. (1982). Attention and arousal: Cognition and performance. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eysenck, M. W., & Calvo, M. G. (1992). Anxiety and performance: The processing efficiency theory. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 409–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fairclough, S. H. (2001). Mental effort regulation and the functional impairment of the driver. In P. A. Hancock & P. A. Desmond (Eds.), Stress, workload and fatigue (pp. 479–502). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  19. Fairclough, S. H., & Venables, L. (2006). Prediction of subjective states from psychophysiology: A multivariate approach. Biological Psychology, 71, 100–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fellner, A., Matthews, G., Warm, J.S., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R.D. (2006). Learning to discriminate terrorists: The effects of emotional intelligence and emotive cues. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 50, 1619–1623.Google Scholar
  21. Fellner, A., Matthews, G., Funke, G. J., Emo, A. K., Zeidner, M., Pérez-González, J. C., et al. (2007). The effects of emotional intelligence on visual search of emotional stimuli and emotion identification. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 51, 845–849.Google Scholar
  22. Ferguson, E., Matthews, G., & Cox, T. (1999). The appraisal of life events (ALE) scale: Reliability and validity. British Journal of Health Psychology, 4, 97–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Funke, G. J., Matthews, G., Warm, J. S., & Emo, A. (2007). Vehicle automation: A remedy for driver stress? Ergonomics, 50, 1302–1323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hancock, P. A., & Ganey, N. (2003). From the inverted-U to the extended-U: The evolution of a law of psychology. Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments, 7, 5–14.Google Scholar
  25. Hancock, P. A., & Szalma, J. L. (2008). Stress and performance. In P. A. Hancock & J. L. Szalma (Eds.), Performance under stress (pp. 1–18). Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
  26. Hart, S. G., & Staveland, L. E. (1988). Development of NASA-TLX (task load index): Results of empirical and theoretical research. In P. A. Hancock & N. Meshkati (Eds.), Human mental workload (pp. 139–183). Oxford, UK: North-Holland.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Helton, W. S., Dember, W. N., Warm, J. S., & Matthews, G. (1999). Optimism-pessimism and false failure feedback: Effects on vigilance performance. Current Psychology: Research and Review, 18, 311–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Helton, W. S., Shaw, T. H., Warm, J. S., Matthews, G., Dember, W. N., & Hancock, P. A. (2004). Demand transitions in vigilance: Effects on performance efficiency and stress. In D. A. Vincenzi, M. Mouloua, & P. A. Hancock (Eds.), Human performance, situation awareness and automation: Current research and trends, HPSAAII (Vol. 1, pp. 258–262). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  29. Helton, W. S., Shaw, T. H., Warm, J. S., Matthews, G., Dember, W. N., & Hancock, P. A. (2008). Effects of warned and unwarned demand transitions on vigilance performance and stress. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 21, 173–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Helton, W. S., Warm, J. S., Matthews, G., & Corcoran, K. J. (2002). Further tests of an abbreviated vigilance task: Effects of signal salience and jet aircraft noise on performance efficiency and stress. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 46, 1546–1550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hitchcock, E. M., Warm, J. S., Matthews, G., Dember, W. N., Shear, P. K., Mayeben, D. W., et al. (2002). Automation cueing modulates cerebral blood flow and vigilance in a simulated air traffic control task. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 4, 89–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Humphreys, M. S., & Revelle, W. (1984). Personality, motivation and performance: A theory of the relationship between individual differences and information processing. Psychological Review, 91, 153–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ketelaar, T., & Clore, G. L. (1997). Emotion and reason: The proximate effects and ultimate functions of emotion. In G. Matthews (Ed.), Cognitive science perspectives on personality and emotion (pp. 355–396). Amsterdam: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Koelega, H. S. (1992). Extraversion and vigilance performance: 30 years of inconsistencies. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 239–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kringelbach, M. L. (2005). The human orbitofrontal cortex: Linking reward to hedonic experience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 691–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Langheim, L., Matthews, G., Warm, J. S., Reinerman, L. E., Shaw, T. H., Finomore, V. S., et al. (2007). The long pursuit: in search of predictors of individual differences in vigilance. Paper presented at the Thirteenth Meeting of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, Giessen, Germany, July 2007.Google Scholar
  37. Lazarus, R. S. (1999). Stress and emotion: A new synthesis. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  38. Mackworth, N. H. (1948). The breakdown of vigilance during prolonged visual search. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1, 6–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Matthews, G. (1992). Extraversion. In A. P. Smith & D. M. Jones (Eds.), Handbook of human performance. Vol. 3: State and trait (pp. 95–126). London: AcademicGoogle Scholar
  40. Matthews, G. (2000). A cognitive science critique of biological theories of personality traits. History and Philosophy of Psychology, 2, 1–17.Google Scholar
  41. Matthews, G. (2001). Levels of transaction: A cognitive sciences framework for operator stress. In P. A. Hancock & P. A. Desmond (Eds.), Stress, workload and fatigue (pp. 5–33). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  42. Matthews, G. (2002). Towards a transactional ergonomics for driver stress and fatigue. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 3, 195–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Matthews, G. (2008). Reinforcement sensitivity theory: A critique from cognitive science. In P. L. Corr (Ed.), The reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality (pp. 482–527). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Matthews, G., & Amelang, M. (1993). Extraversion, arousal theory and performance: A study of individual differences in the EEG. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 347–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Matthews, G., & Campbell, S. E. (1998). Task-induced stress and individual differences in coping. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 42, 821–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Matthews, G., & Campbell, S. E. (1999). Individual differences in stress response and working memory. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 43, 634–638.Google Scholar
  47. Matthews, G., & Campbell, S. E. (2009). Sustained performance under overload: Personality and individual differences in stress and coping. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 10, 417–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Matthews, G., Campbell, S., Falconer, S. (2001). Assessment of motivational states in performance environments. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 45, 906–910.Google Scholar
  49. Matthews, G., Campbell, S. E., Falconer, S., Joyner, L., Huggins, J., Gilliland, K., et al. (2002). Fundamental dimensions of subjective state in performance settings: Task engagement, distress and worry. Emotion, 2, 315–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Matthews, G., & Davies, D. R. (1998). Arousal and vigilance: The role of task demands. In R. R. Hoffman, M. F. Sherrick, & J. S. Warm (Eds.), Viewing psychology as a whole: The integrative science of William N. Dember (pp. 113–144). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Matthews, G., & Davies, D. R. (2001). Individual differences in energetic arousal and sustained attention: A dual-task study. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 575–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Matthews, G., Davies, D. R., & Holley, P. J. (1990). Extraversion, arousal and visual sustained attention: The role of resource availability. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 1159–1173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Matthews, G., Davies, D. R., & Lees, J. L. (1990). Arousal, extraversion, and individual differences in resource availability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 150–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Matthews, G., Davies, D. R., Westerman, S. J., & Stammers, R. B. (2000). Human performance: Cognition, stress and individual differences. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  55. Matthews, G., Deary, I. J., & Whiteman, M. C. (2003). Personality traits (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Matthews, G., & Desmond, P. A. (1998). Personality and multiple dimensions of task-induced fatigue: A study of simulated driving. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 443–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Matthews, G., & Desmond, P. A. (2002). Task-induced fatigue states and simulated driving performance. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55A, 659–686.Google Scholar
  58. Matthews, G., Emo, A. K., Funke, G., Zeidner, M., Roberts, R. D., Costa, P. T., Jr., et al. (2006). Emotional intelligence, personality, and task-induced stress. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 12, 96–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Matthews, G., & Falconer, S. (2002). Personality, coping and task-induced stress in customer service personnel. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 46, 963–967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Matthews, G., & Gilliland, K. (1999). The personality theories of H. J. Eysenck and J. A. Gray: A comparative review. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 583–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Matthews, G., & Harley, T. A. (1993). Effects of extraversion and self-report arousal on semantic priming: A connectionist approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 735–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Matthews, G., Jones, D. M., & Chamberlain, A. G. (1990). Refining the measurement of mood: The UWIST mood adjective checklist. British Journal of Psychology, 81, 17–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Matthews, G., Joyner, L., Gilliland, K., Campbell, S. E., Falconer, S., & Huggins, J. (1999). Validation of a comprehensive stress state questionnaire: Towards a state “Big Three.” In I. Mervielde, I. J. Dreary, F. DeFruyt, & F. Ostendorf (Eds.), Personality psychology in Europe (Vol. 7, pp. 335–350). Tilburg, Netherlands: Tilburg University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Matthews, G., & Margetts, I. (1991). Self-report arousal and divided attention: A study of performance operating characteristics. Human Performance, 4, 107–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Matthews, G., Saxby, D. J., Funke, G. J., Emo, A. K., & Desmond, P. A. (in press). Driving in states of fatigue or stress. In D. Fisher, M. Rizzo, J. Caird, & J. Lee (Eds.), Handbook of driving simulation for engineering, medicine and psychology. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and FrancisGoogle Scholar
  66. Matthews, G., Schwean, V. L., Campbell, S. E., Saklofske, D. H., & Mohamed, A. A. R. (2000). Personality, self-regulation and adaptation: A cognitive-social framework. In M. Boekarts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 171–207). New York: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Matthews, G., Warm, J. S., Dember, W. N., Mizoguchi, H., & Smith, A. P. (2001). The common cold impairs visual attention, psychomotor performance, and task engagement. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 45, 1377–1381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Matthews, G., Warm, J. S., & Washburn, D. (2007). Diagnostic methods for predicting performance impairment associated with combat stress. Report for U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, contract # W23RYX-3106-N605Google Scholar
  69. Matthews, G., & Westerman, S. J. (1994). Energy and tension as predictors of controlled visual and memory search. Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 617–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Matthews, G., & Zeidner, M. (2004). Traits, states and the trilogy of mind: An adaptive perspective on intellectual functioning. In D. Dai & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Motivation, emotion, and cognition: Integrative perspectives on intellectual functioning and development (pp. 143–174). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  71. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (2008). Empirical and theoretical status of the Five-Factor Model of personality traits. In G. J. Boyle, G. Matthews, & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Handbook of personality theory and assessment: Volume 1: Personality theories and models. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  72. Nęcka, E. (1997). Attention, working memory and arousal: Concepts apt to account for the “process of intelligence”. In G. Matthews (Ed.), Cognitive science perspectives on personality and emotion (pp. 503–554). Amsterdam: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Norman, D. A., & Shallice, T. (1986). Attention to action: willed and automatic control of behaviour. In R. J. Davidson, G. E. Schwartz & D. Shapiro (Eds.), Consciousness and self-regulation: Advances in research (Vol. 4, pp. 1–18). New York: PlenumGoogle Scholar
  74. Nuechterlein, K. H., Parasuraman, R., & Jiang, Q. (1983). Visual sustained attention: Image degradation produces rapid sensitivity decrement over time. Science, 220, 327–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Parasuraman, R., Warm, J. S., & See, J. E. (1998). Brain systems of vigilance. In R. Parasuraman (Ed.), The attentive brain (pp. 221–256). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  76. Parsons, K. S., Warm, J. S., Nelson, W. T., Riley, M., & Matthews, G. (2007). Detection-action linkage in vigilance: effects on workload and stress. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 51, 1291–1295.Google Scholar
  77. Pashler, H. E. (1998). The psychology of attention. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  78. Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2006). Achievement goals and discrete achievement emotions: A theoretical model and prospective test. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 583–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pickering, A. D., & Smillie, L. D. (2008). The behavioural activation system: Challenges and opportunities. In P. L. Corr (Ed.), The reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality (pp. 120–154). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Posner, M. I., Rothbart, M. K., Sheese, B. E., & Tang, Y. (2007). The anterior cingulate gyrus and the mechanism of self-regulation. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 391–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1984). Computation and cognition: Toward a foundation for cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  82. Reinerman, L., Matthews, G., Warm, J. S., & Langheim, L. (2007). Predicting cognitive vigilance performance from cerebral blood flow velocity and task engagement. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 51, 850–854.Google Scholar
  83. Reinerman, L. E., Matthews, G., Warm, J. S., Langheim, L. K., Parsons, K., Proctor, C. A., et al. (2006). Cerebral blood flow velocity and task engagement as predictors of vigilance performance. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 50, 1254–1258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Robbins, T. W., Milstein, J. A., & Dalley, J. W. (2004). Neuropharmacology of attention. In M. I. Posner (Ed.), Cognitive neuroscience of attention (pp. 283–293). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  85. Robinson, M. D., & Sedikides, C. (2009). Traits and the self: Toward an integration. In P. J. Corr & G. Matthews (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of personality (pp. 457–472). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sarason, I. G., Sarason, B. R., & Pierce, G. R. (1995). Cognitive interference: At the intelligence-personality crossroads. In D. Saklofske & M. Zeidner (Eds.), International handbook of personality and intelligence (pp. 285–296). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  87. Saxby, D. J., Matthews, G., & Hitchcock, T. (2007). Fatigue states are multidimensional: Evidence from studies of simulated driving. In Proceedings of the driving simulation conference – North America 2007. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa.Google Scholar
  88. Schunk, D. H., & Pajares, F. (2005). Competence perceptions and academic functioning. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 85–104). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  89. See, J. E., Howe, S. R., Warm, J. S., & Dember, W. N. (1995). Meta-analysis of the sensitivity decrement in vigilance. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 230–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Shiffrin, R. M., & Schneider, W. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending and a general theory. Psychological Review, 84, 127–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stroobant, N., & Vingerhoets, G. (2000). Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during performance of cognitive tasks: A review. Neuropsychology Review, 10, 213–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Szalma, J. L. (2008). Individual differences in stress reaction. In P. A. Hancock & J. L. Szalma (Eds.), Performance under stress (pp. 323–357). Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
  93. Szalma, J. L., Hancock, P. A., Dember, W. N., & Warm, J. S. (2006). Training for vigilance: The effect of knowledge of results format and dispositional optimism and pessimism on performance and stress. British Journal of Psychology, 97, 115–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Temple, J. G., Warm, J. S., Dember, W. N., Jones, K. S., LaGrange, C. M., & Matthews, G. (2000). The effects of signal salience and caffeine on performance, workload, and stress in an abbreviated vigilance task. Human Factors, 42, 183–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Thayer, R. E. (1978). Toward a psychological theory of multidimensional activation (arousal). Motivation and Emotion, 2, 1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Thayer, R. E. (1989). The biopsychology of mood and arousal. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Thayer, R. E. (1996). The origin of everyday moods. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Warm, J. S., & Dember, W. N. (1998). Tests of a vigilance taxonomy. In R. R. Hoffman, M. F. Sherrick & J. S. Warm (Eds.), Viewing psychology as a whole: The integrative science of William N. Dember (pp. 87–112). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Warm, J. S., Matthews, G., & Finomore, V. S. (2008). Workload and stress in sustained attention. In P. A. Hancock & J. L. Szalma (Eds.), Performance under stress (pp. 115–141). Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
  100. Wells, A. (2000). Emotional disorders and metacognition: Innovative cognitive therapy. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  101. Wells, A., & Matthews, G. (1994). Attention and emotion: A clinical perspective. Hove: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  102. Wickens, C. D., & Hollands, J. G. (1999). Engineering psychology and human performance (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald Matthews
    • 1
  • Joel S. Warm
    • 2
  • Lauren E. Reinerman
    • 3
  • Lisa K. Langheim
    • 1
  • Dyani J. Saxby
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Warfighter Interface Division, Air Force Research LaboratoryWright-Patterson AFBOhioUSA
  3. 3.Applied Cognition and Training Immersive Virtual Environments Lab (ACTIVE)University of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA

Personalised recommendations