Light Sources, Types of Colorants, Observer

  • Georg Klein
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 154)


In this chapter, the fundamental conditions for color production are discussed. In simplified terms, the visual color impression of non-self-luminous colors is ultimately due to three independent components: the light source, the colorants of the color pattern, and the observer. The color perception depends, therefore, on the specific properties of these factors. Factors of particular importance are as follows:


Absorption Pigment Color Perception Absorption Colorant Pigment Particle Color Impression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Strocka, D: “Are Intervals of 20 nm Sufficient for Industrial Colour Measurement?”, Colour 73, Adam Hilger, London (1973) 453Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pedrotti, FL, Pedrotti, LS, Pedrotti, LM: “Introduction to Optics”, Person Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bellan, PM: “Fundamentals of Plasma Physics”, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Taylor, AH, Kerr, GP: “The distribution of energy in the visible spectrum of daylight”, J Opt Soc Am 31 3–8 (1941)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Albrecht, H: “Optische Strahlungsquellen”, Grafenau (1977)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Coaton, JR, Ed: “Lamps and Lighting”, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (2001); Csele, M: “Fundamentals of light sources and lasers”, Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, New Jersey (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    CIE No 15.3: “Colorimetry”, 3rd ed, CIE, Bureau Central de la CIE, Wien (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    ISO 11664-2:2007: “Colorimetry – Part 2: CIE Standard Illuminants”, International Organization of Standardization, Genf, CH (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    CIE S 014-2E: “Colorimetry – Part 2: CIE Standard Illuminants”, CIE, Bureau Central de la CIE, Wien (2006); ISO 11664-2: 2008 (E), Joint ISO/CIE StandardGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    CIE No 13.2: “Method of Measuring and Specifying Colour Rendering Properties of Light Sources”, 2nd ed, CIE, Bureau Central de la CIE, Paris (1974)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    CIE No 13.3: “Method of Measuring and Specifying Colour Rendering Properties of Light Sources”, 3rd ed, CIE, Bureau Central de la CIE, Wien (1995)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    DIN 6169: “Farbwiedergabe” part 1-8, Deutsches Institut fuer Normung eV, Berlin (1976–1979)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kortuem, G: “Reflexionsspektroskopie”, Springer, Berlin (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Born, M, Wolf, E: “Principles of Optics”, 7th ed, reprint, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK (2006)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ditteon, R: “Modern Geometrical Optics”, Wiley, New York (1998)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bohren, CF: “Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles”, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Iizuka, K: “Engineering Optics”, 3rd ed, Springer Series in Optical Sciences Vol 35, Springer, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Glausch, R, Kieser, M, Maisch, R, Pfaff, G, Weitzel, J: “Special Effect Pigments”, 2nd ed, Vincentz, Hannover (2008)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tipler, PA: “Physics for Scientists and Engineers”, Freeman, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Loewen, GE, Popov, E: “Diffraction Gratings and Applications”, Dekker Inc, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nassau, K: “The Physics and Chemistry of Color”, 2nd ed, Wiley, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Buxbaum, G, Pfaff, G, Eds: “Industrial Inorganic Pigments”, 3rd ed, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2005)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Herbst, W, Hunger, K: “Industrial Organic Pigments: Production, Properties and Applications”, 3rd ed, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Benzing, G, Ed: “Pigmente und Farbstoffe fuer die Lackindustrie”, 2nd ed, expert, Ehningen (1992)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hunger, K, Ed: “Industrial Dyes”, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2003)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Valeur, B: “Molecular Fluorescence”, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2006)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hunt, RWG: “The Reproduction of Colour”, 6th ed, Wiley, Chichester (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Smith, KJ: “Colour order systems, colour spaces, colour difference and colour scales”; in McDonald, R, Ed: “Colour Physics for Industry”, 2nd ed, Soc of Dyers and Colourists, Bradford (1997)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kuehni, RG, Schwarz, A: “Color Ordered: A Survey of Color Order Systems from Antiquity to the Present”, Oxford University Press, Oxford (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Munsell, AH: “Atlas of the Munsell Color System”, Wadsworth-Howland & Company, Malden, MA (1915); “Munsell Book of Color”, Munsell Color Co, Baltimore, MD (1929) until nowCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hard, A, Sivik, L, Tonquist, G: “NCS natural colour system from concept to research and applications”, Col Res Appl 21 (1996) 129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Colour Index International: “Pigment and solvent Dyes”, Soc Dyers Col, Bradford, England; and American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, Research Triangle Park, NC (1998)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    ASTM E 308 – 08: “Standard Practice for Computing the Colors of Objects by Using the CIE-System”, American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA (2008); DIN 6164: “DIN-Farbenkarte”, Part 1–3, Deutsches Institut fuer Normung eV, Berlin (1980–1981)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nickerson, D: “OSA uniform color scale samples: a unique set”, Col Res Appl 6 (1981) 7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    RAL: “RAL-Design-System”, “RAL Effect”; RAL Deutsches Institut fuer Guetesicherung und Kennzeichnung, St Augustin, Germany (2008)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    ASTM D 16 – 08: “Standard Terminology for Paint, Related Coatings, Materials, and Applications”, American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA (2008); CIE No 124/1: “Colour notations and colour order systems”, CIE, Bureau de la CIE, Wien (1997); DIN 55943: “Farbmittel – Begriffe”, Deutsches Institut fuer Normung eV, Berlin (2001)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Landolt-Boernstein: “Zahlenwerte und Funktionen aus Naturwissenschaften und Technik”, new series II, Vol 15b: “Metalle: Elektronische Transportphaenomene”, Springer, Berlin (1985)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wheeler, I: “Metallic Pigments in Polymers”, Rapra Techn Ltd, Shawbury, UK (2003)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wissling, P et al: “Metallic effect pigments”, Vincentz Network, Hannover (2007)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pfaff, G: “Spezielle Effektpigmente”, 2nd ed, Vincentz Network, Hannover (2007)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    ASTM D 480 – 88: “Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing of Flaked Aluminum Powders and Pastes”, American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA (2008); DIN 55923: “Pigmente: Aluminiumpigmente und Aluminiumpigmentpasten fuer Anstrichfarben”, Deutsches Institut fuer Normung eV, Berlin (1983)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Roesler, G: “Colorimetric characterization and comparison of metallic paints”, Polymers Paint Colour J 181 (1991) 230Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rodriguez, ABJ: “Color and appearance measurement of metallic and pearlescent finishes”, ASTM Standardization News 10 (1995)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Panush, S: “Opalescent Automotive Paint Compositions Containing Microtitaniumdioxide Pigment”, Patent US 4753829 (1986)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pfaff, G, Franz, KD, Emmert, R, Nitta, K, in: “Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry: Pigments, Inorganic”, Section 43; 6th ed, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (1998)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Teany, S, Pfaff, G, Nitta, K: “New effect pigments using innovative substrates”, Eur Coatings J 4 (1999) 434Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sharrock, SR, Schuel, N: “New effect pigments based on SiO2 and Al2O3 flakes”, Eur Coatings J 1–2 (2000) 105Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Maile, FJ, Pfaff, G, Reynders, P: “Effect pigments: past, present, future”, Progr Org Coat 54/3 (2005) 150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Droll, FJ: “Just what color is that car”, Paint & Coatings Industry (1998) 2Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schmid, R, Mronga, N, Radtke, V, Seeger, O: “Optisch variable Glanzpigmente”, Farbe u Lack 104/5 (1998) 44Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Heinlein, J, Kasch, M: “LC-Pigmente – Feuerwerk der Farben”, Phaenomen Farbe 7+8 (2000) 18Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cramer, WR, Gabel, PW: “Effektvolles Messen”, Farbe u Lack 107 (2001) 42Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nadal, ME, Early, EA: “Color measurements for pearlescent coatings”, Col Res Appl 29 (2004) 38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hofmeister, F, Maisch, P, Gabel, PW: “Farbmetrische Charakterisierung und Identifizierung von Mica-Lackierungen”, Farbe u Lack 98 (1992) 593Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gabel, PW, Hofmeister, F, Pieper, H: “Interference pigments as focal points of colour measurement”, Kontakte 2 (1992) 25Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Argoitia, A, Witzman, M: “Pigments Exhibiting Diffractive Effects”, Soc Vacuum Coaters, 45th Ann Techn Conf Proceedings (2002)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dowling, JE: “The Retina: An Approachable Part of the Brain”, Harvard Univ Press, Cambridge, (1987)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kaiser, PK, Boynton, RM: “Human Color Vision”, 2nd ed, Optical Society of America, Washington DC (1996)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Birch, J: “Diagnosis of Defective Color Vision”, 2nd ed, Butterwoth-Heinemann, Oxford (2001)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shevell, SK, Ed: “The Science of Color”, Elsevier, Amsterdam (2003)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Neumeyer, C:“Color Vision in Lower Vertebrates”, in: Backhaus, WGK, Kliegel, R, Werner, JS, eds: “Color Vision: Perspectives from Different Disciplines”, W de Gruyter, Berlin (1998)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jordan, G, Mollon, JD: “A study of women heterozygous for colour deficiencies”, Vision Res 33 (1993) 1495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mueller, GE: “Ueber die Farbempfindungen”, Z Psychologie, 17/18 (1930)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Judd, DB: “Basic correlates of the visual stimulus”, in: “Handbook of Experimental Psychology”, Wiley, New York (1951) 811Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Grassmann, HG: “Zur Theorie der Farbenmischung”, Annalen der Physik 89 (1853) 69; original translation in English: Philosophical Magazine 7, Ser 4 (1854) 254; in addition: MacAdam, DL, Ed: “Selected Papers in Colorimetry – Fundamentals”, SPIE Milestone Series MS 77 (1993) 10Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wright, WD: “A re-determination of the mixture curves of the spectrum”, Trans Opt Soc Lond 31 (1929–1930) 201Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Guild, J: “The colorimetric properties of the spectrum”, Phil Trans Royal Soc London, Ser A 230 (1931) 149ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Broabent, AD: “A critical review of the development of the CIE 1931 RGB colour-matching functions”, Col Res Appl 29 (2004) 267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fairman, HS, Brill, MH, Hemmendinger, H: “How the CIE 1931 color-matching functions were derived from Wright-Guild data”, Col Res Appl 22 (1997) 11; Col Res Appl 23 (1998) 259Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    CIE No 15.2: “Colorimetry”, 2nd ed, CIE, Bureau Central de la CIE, Wien (1986)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    CIE No 165: “CIE 10 degree photopic photometric observer”, CIE, Bureau Central de la CIE, Wien (2005)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    CIE S 014-1:2006: “Colorimetry-Part 1: CIE Standard Colorimetric Observers”, CIE, Bureau Central de la CIE, Wien (2006); ISO 11664-1: 2008 (E), Joint ISO/CIE StandardGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Stiles, WS: “The basic data of colour-matching”, Phys Soc London, Yearbook (1955) 44Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Stiles, WS, Burch JM: “NPL color-matching investigation: Final Report”, Optica Acta 6 (1959) 1ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Speranskaja, NI: “Determination of spectrum color coordinates for twentyseven normal observers”, Optics Spectro 7 (1959) 424ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georg Klein
    • 1
  1. 1.HerrenbergGermany

Personalised recommendations