International Business, Entrepreneurship and the Global Economy

  • Siri A. Terjesen
  • Zoltan J. Acs
  • David B. Audretsch
Part of the International Handbook Series on Entrepreneurship book series (IHSE, volume 5)


In the opening pages of the New York Times bestseller, The World is Flat, Thomas Friedman (2005, 12–15) recounts the story of Rao, a Mumbai native who founded an India-based accounting firm which performs accounting work for American firms. Rao and the millions of other “international entrepreneurs” around the world who do business across national borders have captured the interest of business and government leaders, as well as scholars across a broad range of disciplines, including international business, management, economics, geography, sociology, and entrepreneurship.


Foreign Direct Investment Entrepreneurial Activity Knowledge Spillover Entrepreneurial Orientation Entrepreneurial Firm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aaby, N.-E., & Slater, F. S. 1989. Managerial influence on export performance: A review of the empirical literature 1978–1988. International Marketing Review, 6(4): 7–26.Google Scholar
  2. Acs, Z. J., Arenius, P., Hay, M., & Minniti, M. 2004. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. 2004 Executive Report. Wellesley, MA and London: Babson College and London Business School.Google Scholar
  3. Acs, Z. J., & Audretsch, D. B. 2003. Innovation and technological change. In Z. J. Acs, & D. B. Audretsch (Eds.), Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research. An Interdisciplinary Survey and Introduction: 55–80. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  4. Acs, Z. J., Audretsch, D. B., Braunerhjelm, P., & Carlsson, B. 2009. The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship, Small Business Economics, 32(1): 15–30.Google Scholar
  5. Acs, Z. J., & Audretsch, D. B. 2010. Introduction. Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research (2nd ed.). Springer (this volume).Google Scholar
  6. Acs, Z. J., Desai, S., & Klapper, L. F. 2008. What does entrepreneurship data really show? Small Business Economics, 31(3): 265–281.Google Scholar
  7. Acs, Z. J., Morck, R., Shaver, J. M., & Yeung, B. 1997. The internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises: A policy perspective. Small Business Economics, 9(1): 7–20.Google Scholar
  8. Acs, Z., O’Gorman, C., Szerb, L., & Terjesen, S. 2007. Could the Irish miracle be repeated in Hungary? Small Business Economics, 28(2/3): 123–142.Google Scholar
  9. Acs, Z. J., & Szerb, L. 2009. The Global Entrepreneurship Index (GEINDEX). Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 5(5): 341–435.Google Scholar
  10. Acs, Z. J., & Terjesen, S. 2006. Born local: Two views of internationalization. Working paper presented at the Academy of Management, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  11. Acs, Z. J., & Varga, A. 2005. Entrepreneurship, agglomeration and technological change. Small Business Economics, 24(3): 323–334.Google Scholar
  12. Acs, Z. J. & Virgill, N. 2010. Entrepreneurship and economic development. In Acs, Z. J., & D. B. Audretsch (Eds.), Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research (2nd ed.). Springer (this volume).Google Scholar
  13. Aitken, B., Hanson, G. H., & Harrison, A. E. 1997. Spillovers, foreign investment and export behavior. Journal of International Economics, 43(1–2): 103–132.Google Scholar
  14. Akoorie, M., & Enderwick, P. 1992. The international operations of New Zealand companies. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 9(1): 51–69.Google Scholar
  15. Aldrich, H. 1992. Methods in our madness? Trends in entrepreneurship research. In D. L. Sexton, & J. D. Kasarda (Eds.), The State of the Art in Entrepreneurship Research. Boston, MA: PWS-Kent, 191–213.Google Scholar
  16. Aldrich, H., & Baker, T. 1997. Blinded by the cites? Has there been progress in Entrepreneurship research? In D. L. Sexton, & R. W. Smilor (Eds.), Entrepreneurship: 377–400. Chicago, IL: Upstart Publishing.Google Scholar
  17. Amorós, J. E., & Cristi, O. 2008. Entrepreneurship and competitiveness development: A longitudinal analysis of Latin American countries. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 4(4): 381–399.Google Scholar
  18. Audretsch, D. B., & Thurik, A. R. 2001. What’s new about the new economy? From the managed to the entrepreneurial economy. Industrial and Corporate Change, 10(1): 267–315.Google Scholar
  19. Autio, E. 2005. Creative tension: The significance of Ben Oviatt’s and Patricia McDougall’s article ‘Toward a Theory of International New Ventures’. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(1): 9–19.Google Scholar
  20. Autio, E. 2006. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. 2007 Global Report on High Growth Entrepreneurship. Wellesley, MA and London: Babson College and London Business School.Google Scholar
  21. Autio, E., & Acs, Z. J. 2007. Individual and country level determinants of growth aspirations in new ventures. Paper presented at the Third Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Research Conference, October 2007, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  22. Autio, E., Sapienza, H. J., & Almeida, J. G. 2000. Effects of age at entry, knowledge intensity, and imitability on international growth. Academy of Management Journal, 43(5): 909–924.Google Scholar
  23. Axinn, C. N. 1988. Export performance: Do managerial perceptions make a difference? International Marketing Review, 5(5): 67–71.Google Scholar
  24. Baker, T., Gedajlovic, E., & Lubatkin, M. 2005. A framework for comparing entrepreneurship processes across nations. Journal of International Business Studies, 36: 493–513.Google Scholar
  25. Barney, J. B. 1991. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1): 99–120.Google Scholar
  26. Baughn, C., Chua, B. L., & Neupert, K. 2006. The normative context for women’s participation in entrepreneurship: A multi-country study. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(5): 687–708.Google Scholar
  27. Baumol, W. J. 1990. Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive and destructive. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5): 893–921.Google Scholar
  28. Bilkey, W. J. 1978. An attempted integration of the literature on the export behavior of firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 9(1): 33–46.Google Scholar
  29. Bloodgood, J. M., Sapienza, H. J., & Almeida, J. G. 1996. The Internationalization of new high-potential U.S. ventures: Antecedents and outcomes. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 20(4): 61–76.Google Scholar
  30. Bosma, N., Acs, Z. J., Autio, E., Coduras, A., & Levie, J. 2009. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. 2008 Executive Report. Google Scholar
  31. Bosma, N., Levie, J., Bygrave, W. D., Justo, R., Lepoutre, J., & Terjesen, S. 2010. Global entrepreneurship monitor. 2009 Executive Report.Google Scholar
  32. Bourdieu, P. 1977. Outline for a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Bourdieu, P. 1990. The Logic of Practice. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Bowen, H. P., & De Clercq, D. 2008. Institutional context and the allocation of entrepreneurial effort. Journal of International Business Studies, 39(4): 747–767.Google Scholar
  35. Buckley, P. J., & Casson, M. C. 1976. The Future of the Multinational Enterprise. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  36. Buckley, P. J., Newbould, G. D., & Thurwell, J. 1988. Foreign Direct Investment by Smaller UK Firms. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  37. Carney, M. 2004. The institutions of industrial restructuring in southeast Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 21(1–2): 171–188.Google Scholar
  38. Carree, M. A., & Thurik, A. R. 2003. The impact of entrepreneurship on economic growth. In Z. J. Acs, & D. B. Audretsch (Eds.), Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research: 437–471. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  39. Casson, M. 1982. The Entrepreneur. Oxford: Martin Robertson.Google Scholar
  40. Caves, R. E. 1971. International corporations: The industrial economics of foreign investment, Economica, 38(3): 1–27.Google Scholar
  41. Cavusgil, T., & Nevin, J. R. 1981. Internal determinants of export marketing behavior: An empirical investigation. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1): 114–119.Google Scholar
  42. Chang, S. 1995. International expansion strategy of Japanese firms: Capability building through sequential entry. Academy of Management Journal, 38(2): 383–407.Google Scholar
  43. Chetty, S. K., & Hamilton, R. K. 1993. Firm level determinants of export performance: A meta-analysis. International Marketing Review, 10(3): 26–34.Google Scholar
  44. Coviello, N. E., & Jones, M. V. 2004. Methodological issues in international entrepreneurship research. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(4): 485–508.Google Scholar
  45. Coviello, N. E., & McAuley, A. 1999. Internationalisation and the smaller firm: A review of contemporary empirical research. Management International Review, 39(3): 223–256.Google Scholar
  46. Coviello, N. E., & Munro, H. J. 1997. Network relationships and the internationalisation process of the small software firm. International Business Review, 6(4): 361–86.Google Scholar
  47. Davidsson, P., & Wiklund, J. 2001. Levels of analysis in entrepreneurship research: current practice and suggestions for the future. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25(4): 81–99.Google Scholar
  48. De Clercq, D., Hessels, J., & Stel, A. van. 2008. Knowledge spillovers and new ventures’ export orientation. Small Business Economics, 31(3): 283–303.Google Scholar
  49. Drori, I., Honig, B., & Ginsberg, A. 2006. Transnational entrepreneurship: Toward a unifying theoretical framework. Academy of Management, Best Papers Proceedings.Google Scholar
  50. Dunning, J. H. 1981. International Production and the Multinational Enterprise. London: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  51. Economist. 2007. Entrepreneurship. November 22.Google Scholar
  52. Economist. 2008. Migration: Open Up. Print edition. Accessed on January 3:
  53. Economist. 2009. A special report on entrepreneurship. March 12.Google Scholar
  54. Edelman, L. F., Manolova, T. S., & Brush, C. G. 2009. Still blinded by the cites: Has there been progress in entrepreneurship research? Working paper presented at the Academy of Management.Google Scholar
  55. Elam, A. B. 2008. Gender and Entrepreneurship: A Multilevel Theory and Analysis. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  56. Elam, A., & Terjesen, S. 2010. Institutional logics: Gender and business creation across 28 countries. European Journal of Development Research: Forthcoming.Google Scholar
  57. Eriksson, K., Johanson, J., Majkgård, A., & Sharma, D. D. 1997. Experiential knowledge and cost in the internationalization process. Journal of International Business Studies, 28(2): 337–360.Google Scholar
  58. Fan, T., & Phan, P. 2007. International new ventures: revisiting the influences behind the ‘born global’ firm. Journal of International Business Studies, 38: 1113–1131.Google Scholar
  59. Fernhaber, S. A., McDougall, P. P., & Oviatt, B. M. 2007. Exploring the role of industry structure in new venture internationalization. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31: 517–542.Google Scholar
  60. Fletcher, R. 2001. A holistic approach to internationalization. International Business Review, 10(1): 25–49.Google Scholar
  61. Friedman, T. L. 2005. The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  62. Fujita, M. 1995. Small and medium sized transnational corporations: Trends and patterns of foreign direct investment. Small Business Economics, 7(3): 183–204.Google Scholar
  63. Gartner, W. B. 2001. Is there an elephant in entrepreneurship? Blind assumptions as theory development. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25(4): 27–40.Google Scholar
  64. Girma, S., Greenaway, D., & Kneller R. 2004. Does exporting increase productivity? A microeconomic analysis of matched firms. Review of International Economics, 12(5): 855–866.Google Scholar
  65. Gompers, P., & Lerner, J. 2010. Equity financing. In Z. J. Acs, & D. B. Audretsch (Eds.), Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research (2nd ed.) (this volume).Google Scholar
  66. Greenaway D., Sousa N., & Wakelin K. 2004. Do domestic firms learn to export from multinationals? European Journal of Political Economy, 20(4): 1027–1043.Google Scholar
  67. Hall, P. A., & Soskice, D. 2001. Varieties of Capitalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Hart, D. M., Acs, Z. J., & Tracy, S. L. 2009. High-tech immigrant entrepreneurship in the United States. SBA Office of Advocacy. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  69. Hessels, J. 2008. Dissertation. International Entrepreneurship: Value Creation Across National Borders. ERIM PhD Series, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  70. Hessels, J., & Terjesen, S. 2010. Resource dependency and institutional theory perspectives on the choice of direct and indirect export. Small Business Economics, 34(2): 203–220.Google Scholar
  71. Hoy, F. 1997. Relevance in entrepreneurship research. In D. L. Sexton, & R. W. Smilor (Eds.), Entrepreneurship 2000: 361–376. Chicago, IL: Upstart Publishing.Google Scholar
  72. Hymer, S. H. 1976. The international operations of national firms: A study of direct foreign investment. Boston, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  73. Ibeh, K. 2006. Internationalisation and the small business. In S. Carter, & D. Jones-Evans (Eds.), Enterprise and Small Business: Principles, Practice and Policy: 465–484. Harlow: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  74. Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J.-E. 1977. The internationalization process of the firm: A model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments. Journal of International Business Studies, 8(1): 23–32.Google Scholar
  75. Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J.-E. 1990. The mechanism of internationalization. International Marketing Review, 7(4): 11–24.Google Scholar
  76. Keupp, M. M., & Gassmann, O. 2009. The past and future of international entrepreneurship: A review and suggestions for developing the field. Journal of Management, online first.Google Scholar
  77. Kneller, R., & Pisu, M. 2007. Industrial linkages and export spillovers from FDI. The World Economy, 30(1): 105–134.Google Scholar
  78. Kreiser, P. M., Marino, L. D., & Weaver, K. M. 2002. Assessing the psychometric properties of the entrepreneurial orientation scale: A multi-country analysis. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26(4): 71–94.Google Scholar
  79. Kuhn, T. 1970. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  80. Kuratko, D. 2010. Corporate entrepreneurship. In Z. J. Acs, & D. B. Audretsch (Eds.), Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research (2nd ed.) (this volume).Google Scholar
  81. Lefebvre, E., & Lefebvre, L.-A. 2002. Innovative capabilities as determinants of export performance and behaviour: A longitudinal study of manufacturing SMEs. In A. Kleinknecht, & P. Mohnen (Eds.), Innovation and Firm Performance: Econometric Explorations of Survey Data: 281–309. London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  82. Levie, J., & Autio, E. 2008. A theoretical grounding and test of the GEM model. Small Business Economics, 31(3): forthcoming.Google Scholar
  83. Light, I. 2008. Keynote address: Global entrepreneurship and transnationalism, NeXT/VERC Conference, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, CA.Google Scholar
  84. Lu, J. W., & Beamish, P. W. 2001. The internationalization and performance of SMEs. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6/7): 565–586.Google Scholar
  85. Lu, J. W., & Beamish, P. W. 2006. Partnering strategies and performance of SMEs’ international joint ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(4): 461–486.Google Scholar
  86. McDougall, P. P. 1989. International versus domestic entrepreneurship: New venture strategic behaviour and industry structure. Journal of Business Venturing, 4(6): 387–400.Google Scholar
  87. McDougall, P. P., Covin, J., Robinson, R. Jr., & Herron, L. 1994. The effects of industry growth and strategic breadth on new venture performance and strategy content. Strategic Management Journal, 15(7): 537–553.Google Scholar
  88. McDougall, P. P., & Oviatt, B. M. 1996. New venture internationalization, strategic change, and performance: A follow-up study. Journal of Business Venturing, 11(1): 23–40.Google Scholar
  89. McDougall, P. P., & Oviatt, B. M. 2000. International entrepreneurship: The intersection of two research paths. Academy of Management Journal, 43(5): 902–906.Google Scholar
  90. McDougall, P. P., Shane, S., & Oviatt, B. M. 1994. Explaining the formation of international new ventures: The limits of international business research, Journal of Business Venturing, 9(6): 469–487.Google Scholar
  91. McMullen, J. S., Bagby, D. R., & Palich. L. E. 2008. Economic Freedom and the Motivation to Engage in Entrepreneurial Action, 32(5): 875–895.Google Scholar
  92. Mitchell, R. E., Smith, B., Morse, E. A., Seawright, K. W., Peredo, A. M., & Mckenzie, B. 2002. Are entrepreneurial cognitions universal? Assessing entrepreneurial cognitions across cultures. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26(4): 9–32.Google Scholar
  93. Moen, Ø. 2002. The born globals. A new generation of small European exporters. International Marketing Review, 19(2–3): 156–175.Google Scholar
  94. Moen, Ø., & Servais, P. 2002. Born Global or Gradual Global? Examining the Export Behavior of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises, Journal of International Marketing, 10(3): 49–72.Google Scholar
  95. Mone, M. A., & McKinley, W. 1993. The uniqueness value and its consequences for organization studies. Journal of Management Inquiry, 2(3): 284–296.Google Scholar
  96. OECD. 2000. OECD Small and Medium Enterprise Outlook. OECD: Paris.Google Scholar
  97. Ohlin, B. 1933. Interregional and International Trade. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  98. Oviatt, B. M., & McDougall, P. P. 1994. Toward a theory of international new ventures, Journal of International Business Studies, 25(1): 45–64.Google Scholar
  99. Oviatt, B .M., & McDougall, P. P. 2005. Defining international entrepreneurship and modeling the speed of internationalization. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(5): 537–553.Google Scholar
  100. Peng, M. W. 2005. Global Strategy. Cincinnati, OH: Thomson.Google Scholar
  101. Peng, M. W., & Ilinitch, A. Y. 1998. Export intermediary firms: A note on export development research. Journal of International Business Studies, 29(3): 609–620.Google Scholar
  102. Peng, M. W., & York, A. S. 2001. Behind intermediary performance in export trade: Transactions, agents and resources. Journal of International Business Studies, 32(2): 327–346.Google Scholar
  103. Pfeffer J., & Salancik, G. 1978. The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  104. Porter, M. E. 1990. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  105. Porter, M. E. 1998. On Competition. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.Google Scholar
  106. Portes, A., Haller, W., & Guarnizo, L. 2002. Transnational entrepreneurs: An alternative form of immigrant economic adaptation. American Sociological Review, 67: 287–298.Google Scholar
  107. Rasmussen, E. S., Madsen, T. K., & Evangelista, F. 2001. The founding of the born global company in Denmark and Australia: Sensemaking and networking. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 13(3): 75–107.Google Scholar
  108. Rennie, M. W. 1993. Global competitiveness: Born global. The McKinsey Quarterly, 4: 45–52.Google Scholar
  109. Reuber, A. R., & Fischer, E. 1997. The influence of the management team’s international experience on the internationalization behaviors of SMEs, Journal of International Business Studies, 28(4): 807–825.Google Scholar
  110. Reynolds, P. D. 1997. New and small firms in expanding markets. Small Business Economics, 9(1): 78–84.Google Scholar
  111. Reynolds, P. D., Bosma, N., Autio, E., Hunt, S., De Bono, N., Servais, I., Lopez-Garcia, P., & Chin, N. 2005. Global entrepreneurship monitor: Data collection design and implementation 1998–2003. Small Business Economics, 24(3): 205–231.Google Scholar
  112. Riahi-Belkaoui, A. 1998. The effects of the degree of internationalization on firm performance. International Business Review, 7(3): 315–321.Google Scholar
  113. Rialp, A., Rialp, J., & Knight, G.A. 2005. The phenomenon of early internationalizing firms: What do we know after a decade (1993–2003) of scientific inquiry? International Business Review, 14(2): 147–166.Google Scholar
  114. Ricardo, D. 1817. On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
  115. Rugman. A. M., & Wright. R. W. (Eds). 1999. Research in Global Strategic Management: International Entrepreneurship. Stamford, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  116. Scott, W. R. 1995. Institutions and Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  117. Sherer, P. D., & Lee, K. 2002. Institutional change in large law firms: A resource dependency and institutional theory perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1): 102–119.Google Scholar
  118. Shorrock, A. 2008. Opening address. United Nations University-WIDER Conference on Entrepreneurship and Economic Development. Helsinki.Google Scholar
  119. Simpson, C., & Kujawa, D. 1974. The export decision process: An empirical inquiry. Journal of International Business Studies, Spring; 147–153.Google Scholar
  120. Smith, A. 1776. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. London: Methuan and Co.Google Scholar
  121. Sternberg, R., & Wennekers, S. 2005. Determinants and Effects of New Business Creation using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data. Small Business Economics, 24(3): 193–203.Google Scholar
  122. Terjesen, S., & Elam, A. B. 2009. A development and test of practice theory to explore transnational entrepreneurs’ venture internationalization. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(5): 1093–1120.Google Scholar
  123. Terjesen, S., & Hessels, J. 2009. Varieties of export-oriented entrepreneurship in Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 26(3): 537–561.Google Scholar
  124. Terjesen, S., O’Gorman, C., & Acs, Z. J. 2008. Intermediated mode of internationalization: New software ventures in Ireland and India, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 20(1): 89–109.Google Scholar
  125. Tesfom, G., Lutz, C., & Ghauri, P. 2004. Comparing export marketing channels: Developed versus developing countries. International Marketing Review, 21(4–5): 409–422.Google Scholar
  126. Thirkell, P. C., & Dau, R. 1998. Export performance: Success determinants for New Zealand manufacturing exporters. European Journal of Marketing, 32(9/10): 813–829.Google Scholar
  127. Thurik, A. R., Carree, M. A., Stel, A. J. van. & Audretsch, D. B. 2008. Does self-employment reduce unemployment? Journal of Business Venturing, 23(6): 673–686.Google Scholar
  128. Van Stel, A. J. 2006. Empirical Analysis of Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth (International Studies in Entrepreneurship Series, Vol. 13). New York: Springer Science.Google Scholar
  129. Vernon, R. 1966. International investment and international trade in the product cycle. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 80(2): 190–207.Google Scholar
  130. Welch, L. S., & Luostarinen, R. K. 1988. Internationalization: Evolution of a concept. Journal of General Management, 14(2): 35–55.Google Scholar
  131. Wernerfelt, B. 1984. The resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5(2): 171–180.Google Scholar
  132. Westhead, P. 1995. Exporting and non-exporting small firms in Great Britain. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 1(2): 6–36.Google Scholar
  133. Westhead, P., Wright, M., & Ucbasaran, D. 2001. The internationalization of new and small firms. A resource-based view. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(4): 333–358.Google Scholar
  134. Westhead, P., Wright, M., & Ucbasaran, D. 2004. Internationalization of private firms: environmental turbulence and organizational strategies and resources. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 16(6): 501–522.Google Scholar
  135. Whitley, R. 1998. Internationalization and varieties of capitalism: The limited effects of cross-national coordination of economic activities on the nature of business systems. Review of International Political Economy, 5(3): 445–481.Google Scholar
  136. Whitley, R. 1999. Divergent Capitalism: The Social Structure and Change of Business Systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  137. Williamson, O. E. 1975. Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  138. Yeung, H. W. -C. 2002. Entrepreneurship in international business: An institutional perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 19(1):26–61.Google Scholar
  139. Yli-Renko, H., Autio, E., & Sapienza, H. J. 2001. Social capital, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge exploitation in young technology-based firms. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6–7): 587–613.Google Scholar
  140. Young, S. 1987. Business strategy and the internationalization of business: Recent approaches. Managerial and Decision Economics, 8(1): 31–40.Google Scholar
  141. Young, S., Hood N., & Dunlop, S. 1988. Global strategies, multinational subsidiary roles and economic impact in Scotland. Regional Studies, 22(6): 487–497.Google Scholar
  142. Young, S., Hood, N., & Peters, E. 1994. Multinationals and regional economic development. Regional Studies, 28: 657–677.Google Scholar
  143. Zacharakis, A. 1997. Entrepreneurial entry into foreign markets: A transaction costs perspective. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 21(3): 23–39.Google Scholar
  144. Zahra, S. A. 2005. A theory of international new ventures: A decade of research. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(1): 20–28.Google Scholar
  145. Zahra, S. A., Hayton, J., Marcel, J., & O’Neill, H. 2001. Fostering entrepreneurship during international expansion: Managing key challenges. European Management Journal, 19(4): 359–369.Google Scholar
  146. Zahra, S. A., Neubaum, D. O., & Huse, M. 1997. The effect of the environment on export performance among telecommunications new ventures. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 22(1): 25–46.Google Scholar
  147. Zou, S., & Stan, S. 1998. The determinants of export performance: A review of the empirical literature between 1987 and 1997. International Marketing Review, 15(5): 333–356.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Siri A. Terjesen
    • 1
  • Zoltan J. Acs
    • 2
  • David B. Audretsch
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Management and Entrepreneurship, Kelley School of BusinessIndiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA
  2. 2.School of Public PolicyGeorge Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA
  3. 3.School of Public and Environmental Affairs Indiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations