The Development of Pharmacodynamic Endpoint Models for Evaluation of Therapeutics in Pancreatic Cancer

  • Amanda F. Baker
  • Tomislav Dragovich


The lack of development of new, more effective, therapies for pancreatic cancer has been disappointing. Among the factors limiting the development of targeted therapy approaches has been the inherent molecular heterogeneity of this disease combined with the challenge of obtaining fresh tumor tissue for the identification of pharmacodynamic biomarkers to segment patients based on target expression and resistance factors. Although many pre-clinical studies include pharmacodynamic studies, few large clinical studies have included similar biological correlative endpoints. Gemcitabine, although only modestly effective, still remains the standard of care. Emerging studies have identified potential molecular and genetic markers for cellular transporters and metabolism of gemcitabine which may be useful in predicting both clinical benefit and toxicity from this agent. The continued development of new therapeutics combined with identification of pharmacodynamic biomarkers to predict and monitor response to anti-cancer agents represents an exciting opportunity to individualize therapy and improve outcomes in this challenging disease.


Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic Cancer Patient Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line Circulate Endothelial Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Arizona Cancer Center, College of MedicineUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

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