Aquatic Toxicology of Perfluorinated Chemicals

  • John P. Giesy
  • Jonathan E. Naile
  • Jong Seong Khim
  • Paul D. Jones
  • John L. Newsted
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 202)

Abstract

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are fluorinated at all of the valence electrons of the carbon atoms in organic molecules, or at least a portion of the molecule is perfluorinated (Fig. 1). All PFCs are synthetic and many have been used in commercially available products or released as byproducts. A partial list of the compounds that are known to have been manufactured and/or released into the environment is given in Table 1. These compounds vary in structure, and thus exhibit different environmental fates and toxicities. Unfortunately, there is presently little information on the chemical–physical properties of most PFCs, and even less toxicity information is available on these compounds.

References

  1. 3 M (2003) Environmental and health assessment of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its salts. Prepared by 3 M Company with J. Moore (Holly house Inc., J. Rodricks and D. Turnbull (Environ Corp) and W. Warren Hicks (Cadmus Group). August 2003.Google Scholar
  2. Ankley GT, Niemi, GJ, Lodge KB, Harris HJ, Beaver DL, Tillitt DE, Schwartz T, Giesy JP, Jones PD, Hagley C (1993) Uptake of planar polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7, 8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins by birds nesting in the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 24:332–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ankley GT, Kuehl DW, Kahl MD, Jensen KM, Butterworth BC, Nichols JW (2004) Partial life-cycle toxicity and bioconcentration modeling of perfluorooctanesulfonate in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens). Environ Toxicol Chem 23:2745–2755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barron MG, Hansen JA, Lipton J (2002) Association between contaminant tissue residues and effects in aquatic organisms. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 173:1–37.Google Scholar
  5. Boudreau T, Sibley P, Mabury SA, Muir DCG, Solomon KR (2002) Toxicity of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids of different chain lengths to selected freshwater organisms. Department of Environmental Biology, Masters Thesis, University of Guelph, ON, p. 134.Google Scholar
  6. Boudreau TM, Sibley PK, Mabury SA, Muir DCG, Solomon KR (2003a) Laboratory evaluation of the toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on Selenastrum capricornutum, Chlorella vulgaris, Lemna gibba, Daphnia magna, and Daphnia pulicaria.Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 44:307–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boudreau TM, Wilson CJ, Cheong WJ, Sibley PK, Mabury SA, Muir DCG, Solomon KR (2003b) Response of the zooplankton community and environmental fate of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in aquatic microcosms. Environ Toxicol Chem 22:2739–2745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowerman WW, Best DA, Grubb TG, Zimmerman M, Giesy JP (1998) Trends of contaminants and effects in bald eagles of the Great Lakes Basin. Environ Monitor Assess 53:197–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. CCME (1999) A protocol for the derivation of water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Canadian Environmental Quality Guideline. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  10. Chapman PM, Fairbrother A, Brown D (1998) Critical evaluation of safety (uncertainty) factors for ecological risk assessment. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Condor JM, Hoke RA, De Wolf W, Russell MH, Buck RC (2008) Are PFCAs bioaccumulative? A critical review and comparison with regulatory criteria and persistent lipophilic compounds. Environ Sci Technol 42:995–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Desjardins D, Sutherland CA, VanHoven RL, Krueger HO (2001a) PFOS: A 96-hr toxicity test with the freshwater alga (Anabaena flos-aquae). Wildlife International, Ltd., Project Number 454A-110B, EPA Docket AR226-0186.Google Scholar
  13. Desjardins D, Sutherland CA, VanHoven RL, Krueger HO (2001b) PFOS: A 96-hr toxicity test with the marine diatom (Skeletonema costatum). Wildlife International, Ltd., Project Number 454A-113A, EPA Docket AR226-1030a056.Google Scholar
  14. Desjardins D, Sutherland C, VanHoven RL, Krueger HO (2001c) PFOS: A 7-d toxicity test with duckweed (Lemna gibba G3). Wildlife International, Ltd. Project Number 454-111, EPA Docket AR226-1030a054.Google Scholar
  15. Di Toro DM, McGarth JA, Hansen DJ (2000) Technical basis for narcotic chemicals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon criteria. I. Water and tissue. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:1951–1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dixon DA (2001) Fluorochemical decomposition process. Theory, modeling, and simulation. WR Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab., Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richmond, WA.Google Scholar
  17. Drottar KR, Krueger HO (2000a) PFOS: A 96-hr toxicity test with the freshwater alga (Selenastrum capricornutum). Wildlife International, Ltd., Project Number 454A-103A, EPA Docket AR226-0085.Google Scholar
  18. Drottar KR, Krueger HO (2000b) PFOS: A 48-hr static acute toxicity test with the cladoceran (Daphnia magna). Wildlife International, Ltd., Project No. 454A-104, EPA Docket AR226-0087.Google Scholar
  19. Drottar KR, Krueger HO (2000c) PFOS: A 96-hr static acute toxicity test with the freshwater mussel (Unio complanatus). Wildlife International, Ltd., Project No. 454A-105, EPA Docket AR226-0091.Google Scholar
  20. Drottar KR, Krueger HO (2000d) PFOS: A 96-hr static acute toxicity test with the saltwater mysid (Mysidopsis bahia). Wildlife International, Ltd. Project No. 454A-101, EPA Docket AR226-0095.Google Scholar
  21. Drottar KR, Krueger HO (2000e) PFOS: A 96-hr shell deposition test with the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Wildlife International, Ltd., Project No. 454A-106, EPA Docket AR226-0089.Google Scholar
  22. Drottar KR, Krueger HO (2000f) PFOS: A semi-static life-cycle toxicity test with the cladoceran (Daphnia magna). Wildlife International Ltd., Project No. 454A-109, EPA Docket AR226-0099.Google Scholar
  23. Drottar KR, Krueger HO (2000 g) PFOS: A flow through life-cycle toxicity test with the saltwater mysid (Mysidopsis bahia). Wildlife International, Ltd., Project No. 454A-107, EPA Docket AR226-0101.Google Scholar
  24. Drottar KR, Krueger HO (2000 h) PFOS: A 96-hr static acute toxicity test with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Wildlife International, Ltd., Project No. 454-102, EPA Docket AR226-0083.Google Scholar
  25. Drottar KR, Krueger HO (2000i) PFOS: An early life-stage toxicity test with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Wildlife International, Ltd., Project No. 454-108, EPA Docket AR226-0097.Google Scholar
  26. Drottar KR, VanHoven RL, Krueger HO (2001) Perfluorooctanesulfonate, potassium salt (PFOS): A flow-through bioconcentration test with the bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Wildlife International, Ltd., Project No. 454A-134, EPA Docket AR226-1030a042.Google Scholar
  27. Ellefson M (2001a) Solubility of PFOS in natural seawater and an aqueous solution of 3.5% of sodium chloride. 3 M Company, 3 M Environmental Laboratory, Laboratory Project No. E00-1716, EPA Docket AR226-1030a026.Google Scholar
  28. Ellefson M (2001b) Solubility of PFOS in octanol. 3 M Company, 3 M Environmental Laboratory, Laboratory Project No. E00-1716, EPA Docket AR226-1030a027.Google Scholar
  29. Ellefson M (2001c) Solubility of PFOS in water. 3 M Company, 3 M Environmental Laboratory, Laboratory Project No. E00-1716, EPA Docket AR226-1030a025.Google Scholar
  30. Ellefson M (2001d) Soil adsorption/desorption study of potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). 3 M Company, 3 M Environmental Laboratory, Laboratory Project No. E00-1311, EPA Docket AR226-1030a030.Google Scholar
  31. Fisk AT, Norstrom RJ, Cymbalisty CD, Muir DCG (1998) Dietary accumulation and depuration of hydrophobic organochlorines: Bioaccumulation parameters and their relationship with the octanol/water partition coefficient. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:951–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Giesy JP, Ludwig JP, Tillitt DE (1994) Dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCBs and colonial fish-eating water birds. In: Schecter A (ed) Dioxin and health. New York, NY, Plenum Press, pp. 249–307.Google Scholar
  33. Giesy JP, Kannan K (1998) Dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): Implications for risk assessment. Crit Rev Toxicol 28:511–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Giesy JP, Kannan K (2001) Global distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate in wildlife. Environ Sci Technol 35:1339–1342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Giesy JP, Kannan K (2002) Perfluorochemical surfactants in the environment. Environ Sci Technol 36:146A–152A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Giesy JP, Newsted JL (2001) Selected fluorochemicals in the Decatur Alabama Area. 3 M Report, Project No. 178041. EPA Docket AR226-1030a161.Google Scholar
  37. Gledhill WE, Markley BJ (2000a) Microbial metabolism (biodegradation) studies of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). I. Activated sludge/sediment. Springborn Laboratories, Inc., Wareham, MA. Lab ID Number 290.6120, EPA Docket AR226-1030a034.Google Scholar
  38. Gledhill WE, Markley BJ (2000b) Microbial metabolism (biodegradation) studies of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). II. Aerobic soil biodegradation. Springborn Laboratories, Inc., Wareham, MA. Lab ID Number 290.6120, EPA Docket AR226-1030a035.Google Scholar
  39. Gledhill WE, Markley BJ (2000c) Microbial metabolism (biodegradation) studies of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). III. Anaerobic sludge biodegradation. Springborn Laboratories, Inc., Wareham, MA. Lab ID Number 290.6120, EPA Docket AR226-1030a036.Google Scholar
  40. Goecke-Flora CM, Reo NV (1996) Influence of carbon chain length on the hepatic effects of perfluorinated fatty acids. Chem Res Toxicol 9:689–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hanson ML, Sibley PK, Brain RA, Mabury SA, Solomon R (2005) Microcosm evaluation of the toxicity and risk to aquatic macrophytes from perfluorooctane sulfonic acid. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 48:329–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hatfield T (2001a) Screening studies on the aqueous photolytic degradation of potassium perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). 3 M Environmental Laboratory, Lab Request No. W2775, St. Paul, MN, EPA Docket AR226-1030a041.Google Scholar
  43. Hatfield T (2001b) Hydrolysis reactions of perfluorooctane SULFONATE (PFOS). 3 M Environmental Laboratory, Lab Request No. W1878. St. Paul, MN, EPA Docket AR226-1030a039.Google Scholar
  44. Hekster FM, Laane RWPM, de Voogt P (2003) Environmental and toxicity effects of perfluoroalkylated substances. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 179:99–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hu W, Jones PD, Upham BL, Trosko JE, Lau C, Giesy JP (2002) Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication by perfluorinated compounds in rat liver and dolphin kidney epithelial cell lines in vitro and Sprague-Dawley rats in vivo. Toxicol Sci 68:429–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jacobs RL, Nixon WB (1999) Determination of the melting point/melting range of PFOS. Wildlife International, Ltd., Project No. 454C-106. EPA Docket AR226-0045.Google Scholar
  47. Johnson JD, Gibson SJ, Ober RE (1984) Cholestyramine-enhanced fecal elimination of carbon-14 in rats after administration of ammonium [14-C] perfluorooctanoate and potassium [14-C] perfluorooctane sulfonate. Fund Applied Toxicol 4:972–976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jones PD, Hu W, DeCoen W, Newsted JL, Giesy JP (2003) Binding of perfluorinated fatty acids to serum protein. Environ Toxicol Chem 22:2639–2649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kannan K, Tao L, Sinclair E, Paskva S, Jude DL, Giesy JP (2005) Perfluorinated compounds in aquatic organisms at various levels in a Great Lakes food chain. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 48:559–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kannan K, Franson JC, Bowerman WW, Hansen KJ, Jones PD, Giesy JP (2001b) Perfluorooctane sulfonate in fish-eating water birds including bald eagles and albatrosses. Environ Sci Technol 35: 3065–3070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kannan K, Koistinen J, Beckmen K, Evans T, Gorzelany JF, Hansen KJ, Jones PD, Helle E, Nyman M, Giesy JP (2001a) Accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate in marine mammals. Environ Sci Technol 35:1593–1598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kleszczynski K, Gardzielewski P, Mulkiewicz E, Stepnowski P, Skladanowski AC (2007) Analysis of structure-cytotoxicity in vitro relationships (SAR) for perfluorinated carboxylic acids. Toxicol In Vitro 21:1206–1211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kurume Laboratory (2001) Final report, Bioconcentration test of 2-perfluoroalkyl (C=4-14) ethanol [This test was performed using 2-(perfluorooctyl)-ethanol (Test substance number K-1518)] in carp. Kurume Laboratory, Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan. EPA Docket AR226-1276.Google Scholar
  54. Kurume Laboratory (2002) Final report, Biodegradation test of salt (Na, K, Li) of perfluoroalkyl (C=4-12) sulfonic acid, test substance number K-1520 (test number 21520). Kurume Laboratory, Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan.Google Scholar
  55. Lange CC (2001) The 35-d aerobic biodegradation study of PFOS. Pace Analytical Services, Minneapolis, MN. 3 M Project Number E01-0444. EPA Docket AR226-1030a040.Google Scholar
  56. Langely AE (1990) Effects of perfluoro-n-decanoic acid on respiratory activity of isolated rat liver mitochondria. J Toxicol Environ Health 29:329–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lau C, Anitole K, Hodes C, Lai D, Pfahles-Hutchens A, Seed J (2007) Perfluoroalkyl acids: A review of monitoring and toxicological findings. Toxicol Sci 99:366–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Leonards PEG, Zierikzee Y, Brinkman UATh, Cofino WP, van Straalen NM, van Hattum B (1997) The selective dietary accumulation of planar polychlorinated biphenyls in the otter (Lutra lutra). Environ Toxicol Chem 16:1807–1815.Google Scholar
  59. MacDonald MM, Warne AL, Stock NL, Mabury SA, Solomon KR, Sibley PK (2004) Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoate to Chironomus tentans. Environ Toxicol Chem 23:2116–2123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Martin JW, Mabury SA, O'Brian PJ (2005) Metabolic products and pathways of fluorotelomer alcohols in isolated rat hepatocytes. Chem Biol Interact 155:165–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Martin JW, Mabury SA, Solomon KR, Muir DCG (2003a) Dietary accumulation of perfluorinated acids in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environ Toxicol Chem 22:189–195.Google Scholar
  62. Martin JW, Mabury SA, Solomon K, Muir DCG (2003b) Bioconcentration and tissue distribution of perfluorinated acids in rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environ Toxicol Chem 22:196–204.Google Scholar
  63. McCarty LS, Mackay D (1993) Enhancing ecotoxicological modeling and assessment. Environ Sci Technol 27:1719–1728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Moody CA, Martin JW, Kwan WC, Muir DCG, Mabury SA (2001) Monitoring perfluorinated surfactants in biota and surface water samples following an accidental release of fire-fighting foam into Etobicoke Creek. Environ Sci Technol 36:545–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mulkiewicz E, Jastorff B, Skladanowski AC, Kleszczynski K, Stepnowski P (2007) Evaluation of the acute toxicity of perfluorinated carboxylic acids using eukaryotic cell lines, bacteria and enzymatic assays. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 23:279–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Newsted JL, Beach SA, Gallagher SP, Giesy JP (2008) Acute and chronic effects of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) on the mallard and northern bobwhite quail. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 54:535–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Newsted JL, Coady KK, Beach SA, Butenhoff JL, Gallagher S, Giesy JP (2007) Effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate on mallard and northern bobwhite quail exposed chronically via the diet. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 23:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. NICNAS (2005) Potassium perfluorobutane sulfonate. Report to the National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme, Sydney Australia.Google Scholar
  69. Oakes KD, Sibley PK, Martin JW, MacLean DD, Solomon KR, Mabury SA, Van Der Kraak GJ (2005) Short-term exposures of fish to perfluorooctane sulfonate: Acute effects on fatty acyl-CoA oxidase activity, oxidative stress, and circulating sex steroids. Environ Contam Toxicol 24:1172–1181.Google Scholar
  70. Obourn J, Frame SR, Bell RH, Longnecker DS, Elliott GS, Cook J (1997) Mechanisms for the pancreatic oncogenic effects of the peroxisome proliferator wyeth-14,643.Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 145:425–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) (2002) Hazard assessment of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and its salts. ENV/JM/RD 17/Final. 21 November, 2002. Paris, p. 362.Google Scholar
  72. Ohmori K, Kudo N, Katayama K, Kawashima Y (2006) Comparison of the toxicokinetics between perfluorocarboxylic acids with different carbon chain length. Toxicol 184:135–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Olson CT, Anderson ME (1983) The acute toxicity of perfluorooctanoic and perfluorodecanoic acids in male rats and effects on tissue fatty acids. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 70:362–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Palmer SJ, Krueger HO (2001) PFOS: A frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus(FETAX). Wildlife International, Ltd., Project No. 454A-116. EPA Docket AR226-1030a057.Google Scholar
  75. Palmer SJ, Van Hoven RL, Krueger HO (2002a) Perfluorooctanesulfonate, potassium salt (PFOS): A 96-hr static acute toxicity test with the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Wildlife International Ltd. Report No. 454A-145. EPA Docket AR226-1030a044.Google Scholar
  76. Palmer SJ, van Hoven RL, Krueger HO (2002b) Perfluorooctanesulfonate, potassium salt (PFOS): A 96-hr static renewal acute toxicity test with the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus). Wildlife International Ltd. Report No. 454A-146A.Google Scholar
  77. Phillips MM, Dinglasan-Panlilio MJA, Mabury SA, Solomon KR, Sibley PK (2007) Fluorotelomer acids are more toxic than perfluorinated acids. Environ Sci Technol 41:7159–7163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. RIVM (2001) Guidance document on deriving environmental risk limits in the Netherlands. In: Traas TP (ed) Report No. 601501 012. National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  79. Robertson JC (1986) Potential for environmental impact of AFA-6 surfactant. Beak Consultants Ltd. Missassauga, Ontario, Canada. EPA Docket AR226-1030a043.Google Scholar
  80. Sargent J, Seffl R (1970) Properties of perfluorinated liquids. Fed Proc 29:1699–1703.Google Scholar
  81. Schaefer EL, Flaggs RS (2000) PFOS: An activated sludge respiration inhibition test. Wildlife International, Ltd., Project No. 454E-101, EPA Docket AR226-0093.Google Scholar
  82. Schnellmann RG, Manning RO (1990) Perfluorooctane sulfonamide: A structurally novel uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Biochem Biophys Acta 1016:344–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sohlenius AK, Andersson K, Bergstrand A, Spydevold O, De Pierre JW (1994) Effects of perfluorooctanoate, a potent peroxisome proliferator in rat, on morris hepatoma 7800C1 cells, a rat cell line. Biochem Biophys 1213:63–74.Google Scholar
  84. Starkov A, Wallace KB (2002) Structural determinants of fluorochemicals-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Toxicol Sci 66:244–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sutherland CA, Krueger HO (2001) PFOS: A 96-hr toxicity test with the freshwater diatom (Navicula pelliculosa). Wildlife International, Ltd., Project Number 454A-112. EPA Docket AR226-1030a055.Google Scholar
  86. Taniyasu S, Kannan K, Horii Y, Hanari N, Yamashita N (2003) A survey of perfluorooctane sulfonate and related perfluorinated organic compounds in water, fish, birds, and humans from Japan. Environ Sci Technol 37:2634–2639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tolls J, Haller M, Graaf ID, Thijssen MATC, Sijm DTHM (1997) Bioconcentration of LAS: Experimental determination and extrapolation to environmental mixtures. Environ Sci Technol 31:3426–3431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tolls J, Sijm DJHM (1995) A preliminary evaluation of the relationship between bioconcentration and hydrophobicity for surfactants. Environ Toxicol Chem 14:1675–1685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Trosko JE, Rush RJ (1998) Epigenetic toxicology as toxicant-induced changes in signaling leading to altered gap junctional intercellular communication. Toxicol Lett 102/103:71–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Upham BL, Deocampo ND, Wurl B,Trosko JE (1998) Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication by perfluorinated fatty acids is dependent on the chain length of the fluorinated tail. Int J Cancer 78:491–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. US EPA (1985) Guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. PB-85-227049. US Environmental Protection Agency, NTIS, Springfield, VA, USA.Google Scholar
  92. US EPA (1995) Final Water Quality Guidance for the Great Lakes System: Final Rule. Federal Register 60: 15366-15425. US EPA, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  93. US EPA (2001) Perfluorooctyl sulfonates; proposed significant new use rule. Federal Register 65:62319–62333.Google Scholar
  94. Van Hoven RL, Stenzel JI, Nixon WB (1999) Determination of the vapor pressure of PFOS using the spinning rotor gauge method. Wildlife International, Ltd., Project Number 454C-105. EPA Docket AR226-0048.Google Scholar
  95. Wildlife International Ltd (2001a) PFBS: An activated sludge respiration test. Wildlife International Ltd., Project No. 454E-102A.Google Scholar
  96. Wildlife International Ltd. (2001b) Perfluorobutane sulfonate, Potassium salt (PFBS): A 48-hour static acute toxicity test with the cladoceran (Daphnia magna). Wildlife International Ltd., Project No. 454A-118A.Google Scholar
  97. Wildlife International Ltd (2001c) Perfluorobutane sulfonate, potassium salt (PFBS): A 96-hour static acute toxicity test with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Wildlife International Ltd., Project No. 454A-115.Google Scholar
  98. Wildlife International Ltd. (2001d) Perfluorobutane sulfonate, Potassium salt (PFBS): A 96-hour static acute toxicity test with bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Wildlife International Ltd., Project No. 454A-114.Google Scholar
  99. Wildlife International Ltd (2001e) PFBS: A 96-hour static acute toxicity test with the freshwater alga (Selenastrum capricornutum). Wildlife International Ltd., Project No. 454A-129.Google Scholar
  100. Wildlife International Ltd (2001f) PFBS: A 96-hour toxicity test with the saltwater mysid (Mysiodopsis bahia). Wildlife International Ltd., Project No. 454A-128.Google Scholar
  101. Wildlife International Ltd (2001g) PFBS: A semi-static life-cycle toxicity test with the cladoceran (Daphnia magna). Wildlife International Ltd., Project No. 454A-130.Google Scholar
  102. Yamada T, Taylor PH (2003) Laboratory-scale thermal degradation of perfluoro-octanyl sulfonate and related substances. Environmental Sciences and Engineering Group, University of Dayton, Research Institute, Dayton, OH.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • John P. Giesy
    • 1
  • Jonathan E. Naile
    • 1
  • Jong Seong Khim
    • 1
  • Paul D. Jones
    • 1
  • John L. Newsted
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology CentreUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  2. 2.ENTRIX, Inc.OkemosUSA

Personalised recommendations