Image-Guided Interventions and Robotics
Interventional radiology (IR) is a branch of medicine in which radiologists perform diagnoses or treatments with needles, catheters, or probes, guided by one or several imaging modalities . In many cases, these procedures offer a minimally invasive alternative to traditional surgery. The long list of indications for IR procedures justifies the interest it has aroused in recent years .
Vascular interventions are performed with catheters directly introduced by endovenous or endoarterial approach. There are two main categories of treatments: embolization (occlusion) or angioplasty (opening). Embolizations can be performed to stop bleeding, to inject therapeutic drugs, or to provoke tumor ischemia, for example. In angioplasty, narrowed or obstructed vessels are released by inflating balloons located at the tip of a catheter.
Nonvascular interventions are fast-developing procedures. They are performed with needles or needle-shaped tools. They can be used for diagnosis, as the biopsies that consist in the removal of tissue samples for analysis purpose. They can also be used for therapy by guiding tools directly into the target, for instance, to perform tumor ablation. Radiofrequency ablation is an example of such a procedure, performed with a needle-like probe placed into the tumor and used to cook cancer cells. IR also improves the repairing process of fractured vertebra. Using a percutaneous guide inserted in the vertebra under radiography control, bone cement is injected to consolidate the vertebra, which offers an alternative to open orthopedic surgery with less trauma.
KeywordsForce Feedback Needle Insertion Robotic Device Master Manipulator Dielectric Elastomer
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