Extrusion-Based Systems

  • Ian Gibson
  • David W. Rosen
  • Brent Stucker


This chapter deals with AM technologies that use extrusion to form parts. These technologies can be visualized as similar to cake icing, in that material contained in a reservoir is forced out through a nozzle when pressure is applied. If the pressure remains constant, then the resulting extruded material (commonly referred to as “roads”) will flow at a constant rate and will remain a constant cross-sectional diameter. This diameter will remain constant if the travel of the nozzle across a depositing surface is also kept at a constant speed that corresponds to the flow rate. The material that is being extruded must be in a semi-solid state when it comes out of the nozzle. This material must fully solidify while remaining in that shape. Furthermore, the material must bond to material that has already been extruded so that a solid structure can result.

Since material is extruded, the AM machine must be capable of scanning in a horizontal plane as well as starting and stopping the flow of material while scanning. Once a layer is completed, the machine must index upwards, or move the part downwards, so that a further layer can be produced.


Additive Manufacturing Extrusion Process Molten Material Fuse Deposition Modeling Fill Pattern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian Gibson
    • 1
  • David W. Rosen
    • 2
  • Brent Stucker
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical & Production EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical EngineeringGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical & Aerospace EngineeringUtah State UniversityLoganUSA

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