Advertisement

Trauma and the Media: How Movies can Create and Relieve Trauma

  • Ani Kalayjian
  • Lisa Finnegan Abdolian
Chapter

Abstract

Any movie producer will tell you that action and violence will almost guarantee an international audience .This chapter discusses how the mass media affect the social understanding of traumatic events, how they influence individuals who have experienced a trauma in both positive and negative ways and how carefully chosen movies can be used to help clients reframe negative experiences and/or perceptions. The authors have enlisted several movies throughout the chapter that in their opinion can be therapeutic for trauma survivors if used appropriately. Films can help facilitate understanding; they can help the survivors realize that they are not alone in their suffering and that their thoughts and feelings are normal reactions to an abnormal event. Films also can be used to instill hope, can illustrate the importance of practicing forgiveness; and can provide information about how to heal, including role models who use healthy coping modalities. Films can also introduce integrative approaches such as psychotherapy, counseling, energy work, Reiki, acupuncture, deep tissue massages, flower remedies, and homeopathic remedies.

Keywords

Traumatic Event Posttraumatic Stress Disorder World Trade Center Transitional Justice Phobic Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Achnowledgement

We express special gratitude to Elissa Jacobs and Miryam Nadkarni for their generous and kind editorial comments.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. Aronson, E. (1999). The social animal(8th ed.), 58pp, New York: Worth Publishers.Google Scholar
  3. Attig, T. (2001). “Relearning the World: Making and Finding Meanings,” In R. A. Neimeyer (Ed.), Meaning Reconstruction and the Experience of Loss, pp. 33–53. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  4. Cooper, A. (2008, March 13). A Spotlight on Prostitution, AC 360°, http://ac360.blogs.cnn.com/2008/03/13/a-spotlight-on-prostitution/. Last retrieved September 12 2008.
  5. Danieli, Y. (1998). Introduction: History and conceptual foundations. In Y. Danieli (Ed.), International handbook of multigenerational legacies of trauma (pp. 1–20). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  6. DeRanieri, J. T., Clements, P. T., Clark, K., Kuhn, D. W., & Manno, M. S. (2004). War, terrorism and children. Journal of School Nursing, 20(2), 17–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ellenberger, H. F. (1970). The discovery of the unconscious. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  8. Elliott, D. M. (1997). Traumatic events: Prevalence and delayed recall in the general population. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 811–820.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Entman, R. M. (2003). Cascading activation: Contesting the White House’s frame after 9/11. Political Communication, 20(4), 415–432(18).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Figley, C. R. (1996). The death was traumatic to say the least! In K. Doka (Ed.), Living with grief after sudden loss.London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  11. Finnegan, L. (2006). No questions asked, news coverage since 9/11. Wesport, Conn: Praeger. Jenkins, Henry, “Lessons from Littleton. What Congress doesn’t want you to hear about youth and the media,” National association of independent schools, Winter 2000.Google Scholar
  12. Frankl, V. (1965). Man’s search for meaning. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  13. Goldsmith, R. E., Barlow, M. R., & Freyd, J. (2004). Knowing and not knowing about trauma: Implications for therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 41(4), 448–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Herman, E. S., & Chomsky, N. (1988). Manufacturing consent: The political economy of the mass media. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  15. Herman, J. (1992). Trauma and recovery. Newyork, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  16. Kalayjian, A. (1999). Forgiveness and transcendence. Clio’s psyche, 6(3), 116–119.Google Scholar
  17. Kalayjian, A. (2002). Biopsychosocial and spiritual treatment of trauma. In R. Massey, S. Massey, & F. Kaslow (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychotherapy (pp. 615–637).New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  18. Kalayjian, A. (2009). Forgiveness in Spite of Denial, Revisionism, and Injustice. In A. Kalayjian and R. F. Paloutzian (Eds.), Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Psychological Pathways to Conflict Transformation and Peace Building. New York, NY: Springer Publishing.Google Scholar
  19. Kalayjian, A. (2007). Family challenges for post tsunami survivors in Sri Lanka: The bio-psychosocial, educational and spiritual approach. The Family Psychologist, 23(2), 8.Google Scholar
  20. Kalayjian, A., & Weisberg, M. (2002). “Generational Impact of Mass Trauma: The Post-Ottoman Turkish Genocide of the Armenians.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  21. Kanihan, D., & Gale, S. F. (2003). Within three hours 97 percent learn about the terrorist attacks. Media Studies of September 11, Newspaper Research Journal, Winter, 78.Google Scholar
  22. Newhagen, J. E., (1998). TV news images that induce anger, fear, and disgust: effects on approach-avoidance and memory. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Spring, 265pp.Google Scholar
  23. Schiraldi, G. R. (2000). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  24. Shapiro, E. R. (2002). Family bereavement after collective trauma: Private suffering, public meanings, and cultural contexts. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 21, 81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Trimble, M. R. (1985). Post traumatic stress disorder: history of a concept. In C. R. Figley (Ed.), Trauma and its wake (p. 7). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  26. US Senate Commerce Committee meeting transcript. (2000). Sen. Sam Brownback statement on marketing violent movies to children. Wednesday, September 27.Google Scholar
  27. Usborne, D. (2006). US cinemas pull harrowing movie about 9/11. The Independent Online, April 4.Google Scholar
  28. Veith, I. (1965). Retrieved April 17, 2009, from the OLPC Wiki: http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/p/post_traumatic_stress_disorder/wiki.htm#wiki_Background
  29. Warheit, B. (1985). A propositional paradigm for estimating the impact of disasters on mental health. Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 3, 29–48.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fordham UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.NiceFrance

Personalised recommendations