Advertisement

The Discovery of Viruses and the Evolution of Vaccinology

  • Nicholas C. Artenstein
  • Andrew W. Artenstein
Chapter

Abstract

The early part of the twentieth century produced significantly fewer major advances in vaccinology than had the latter part of the previous century. However, beginning with the landmark work of the German physician Robert Koch, who in 1876 definitively demonstrated the transmissible nature of Bacillus anthracis, both periods witnessed a number of important scientific advances that would serve to build a firm foundation for the future of vaccines. As described in Chaps. 4 and 5, Louis Pasteur extended the work of Koch to formalize the concept of microbial attenuation, leading directly to his audacious experiments with live, attenuated anthrax vaccine in livestock and rabies vaccine in humans.

In parallel with the significant developments in bacteriology (rabies was also felt to be a bacterial infection until its viral etiology was discovered in the early part of the twentieth century) that were taking place during the late nineteenth century, scientific investigations were unfolding that sought to explain the well-recognized but poorly understood observations regarding immunity to toxins and other diseases. The work of Ilya Metchnikoff and Paul Ehrlich established the basis for the concepts of cellular and humoral immunity, respectively and launched the field of immunology (Chap. 3). Incremental scientific developments by others in the fledgling arena led, almost synergistically, to further refinements in vaccine science during the early part of the twentieth century. Concurrent with these developments in microbiology and immunology, another line of scientific inquiry was evolving, led by the work of a group of agricultural chemists and plant biologists in the countryside of Western Europe, that would have the fortuitous consequence of revolutionizing vaccinology.

Keywords

Bacillus Anthracis Tissue Culture Technique Yellow Fever Virus Rabies Vaccine Yellow Fever Vaccine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Artenstein AW, Opal JM, Opal SM, et al (2005) History of U.S. Military contributions to the study of vaccines against infectious diseases. Mil Med 170(Suppl 4):3–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beijerinck MW (1898) Concerning a contagium vivum fluidum as a cause of the spot-disease of tobacco leaves. Verhandelingen der Koninkyke akademie Wettenschappen te Amsterdam 65:3–21. English edition: Beijerinck MW (1942) (trans: Johnson J). In: Phytopathological Classics, Number 7. American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul, MN, pp 33–52Google Scholar
  3. Bendiner E (1982) Enders, Weller and Robbins: ‘The trio that fished in troubled waters’. Hosp Pract 17(1):163–197Google Scholar
  4. Benison S (1967) Tom Rivers: reflections on a Llfe in medicine and science; an Oral History Memoir. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  5. Bos L (1981) Hundred years of Koch’s Postulates and the history of etiology in plant virus research. Neth J Plant Pathol 87:91–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bos L (1995) The embryonic beginning of virology: unbiased thinking and dogmatic stagnation. Arch Virol 140:613–619CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bos L (1999) Beijerinck’s work on tobacco mosaic virus: historical context and legacy. Phil Trans R Soc Lond 354:675–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brock TD (1999) Robert Koch: a life in medicine and bacteriology. ASM Press: Washington DC.Google Scholar
  9. Brown F (2003) The history of research in foot-and-mouth disease. Virus Res 91:3–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Burnett M (1973) The influence of a great pathologist: a tribute to Ernest Goodpature. Perspect Biol Med 16(3):333–347Google Scholar
  11. Carrel A (1911) Rejuvenation of cultures of tissues. JAMA 1911;57:1611Google Scholar
  12. Chung KT, Ferris DH (1996) Martinus Willem Beijerinck (1851–1931); Pioneer of general microbiology. ASM News 62(10):539–543Google Scholar
  13. Corner GW (1964) A history of the Rockefeller Institute: 1901–1953 Origins and growth. The Rockefeller Institute Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Dawson JR Jr. (1961) Ernest W. Goodpasture, M.D., 1886–1960. Arch Pathol 72:126–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. De Bruyn PHH (1942) The cultivation of filterable viruses in vitro. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 8(1):19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dulbecco R (1976) Francis Peyton Rous 1879–1970. Biogr Mem Natl Acad Sci 48:275–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Eagles GH (1933) The in vitro cultivation of filterable viruses. Biol Rev 8(3):335–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. EconomicExpert (2008) EconomicExpert.com, Montreal. http://www.economicexpert.com/a/Wageningen.htm. Accessed 20 May 2008
  19. Eggers HJ (1999) Milestones in early poliomyelitis research (1840 to 1949). J Virol 73(6):4533–4535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Enders JF, Weller TH, Robbins FC (1949) Cultivation of the Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus in cultures of various human embryonic tissues. Science 109:85–87CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Enders JF, Weller TH, Robbins FC (1952) Alteration in pathogenicity for monkeys of Brunhilde strain of poliomyelitis virus following cultivation in human tissues. Fed Proc 11:464Google Scholar
  22. Enders JF, Robbins FC, Weller TH (1980) The cultivation of poliomyelitis viruses in tissue culture. Rev Infect Dis 2(3):493–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Feller AE, Enders JF, Weller TH (1940) The prolonged coexistence of vaccinia virus in high titre and living cells in roller tube cultures of chick embryonic tissues. J Exp Med 72:367–388CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gard S (1954) The Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine 1954: presentation speech. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1954/press.html. Accessed 13 May 2008Google Scholar
  25. Gey GO (1933) An improved technic for massive tissue culture. Am J Cancer 17:752–756Google Scholar
  26. Goodpasture EW (1925) Intranuclear inclusions in experimental herpetic lesions of rabbits. Am J Pathol 1(1):1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Goodpasture EW (1928) The pathology of certain virus diseases. Science 67(1746):591–593CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Goodpasture EW, Woodruff AM, Buddingh GJ (1931) The cultivation of vaccine and other viruses in the chorio-allantoic membrane of chick embryos. Science 74(1919):371–372CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Goodpasture EW, Buddingh GJ (1933) Human immunization with a dermal vaccine cultivated on the membranes of chick embryos. Science 78(2030):484–485CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hanks JH, Bang FB (1971) Dr. George Otto Gey 1899–1970. In Vitro 6(4):ii-ivCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Harvey AM (1975) Johns Hopkins – the birthplace of tissue culture: the story of Ross G. Harrison, Warren H. Lewis and George O. Gey. Johns Hopkins Med J 136:142–149Google Scholar
  32. Ivanowski D (1892) Concerning the mosaic disease of the tobacco plant. St. Petersb Acad Imp Scie Bul 35:60–67. English editon: Ivanowski D (1942) (trans: Johnson J). In: Phytopathological classics, Number 7. American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul, MN, pp 27–30Google Scholar
  33. Katz S (2005) Frederick Chapman Robbins. Proc Am Philos Soc 149(4):616–618Google Scholar
  34. Katz SL, Wilfert CM, Robbins FC (1996) The role of tissue culture in vaccine development. In: Plotkin SA, Fantini B (eds) Vaccinia, vaccination, vaccinology: Jenner, Pasteur and their successors. Elsevier, ParisGoogle Scholar
  35. la Rivière JWM (1997) The Delft School of Microbiology in historical perspective. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 71:3–13CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Lepow ML (2004) Advances in Virology – Weller and Robbins. N Engl J Med 351(15):1483–1485CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Levine AJ (2001) The origins of virology. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM (eds) Fields virology, 4th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  38. Li CP, Rivers TM (1930) Cultivation of vaccine virus. J Exp Med 52:465–470CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ligon BL (2002) Thomas Huckler Weller, MD: Nobel Laureate and research pioneer in poliomyelitis, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, rubella, and other infectious disease. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 13(1):55–63CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Lustig A, Levine AJ (1992) One hundred years of virology. J Virol 66(8):4629–4631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Maitland HB, Maitland MC (1928) Cultivation of vaccinia virus without tissue culture. Lancet ii:596–597Google Scholar
  42. Mayer A (1886) Concerning the mosaic disease of tobacco. Die Landwirtschaftliche Versuchsstationen 32:451–467. English edition: Mayer A (1942) (trans: Johnson J). In: Phytopathological Classics, Number 7. American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul, MN, pp 11–24Google Scholar
  43. Norrby E, Prusiner SB (2007) Polio and Nobel prizes: looking back 50 years. Ann Neurol 61(5):385–395CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Parker F, Nye RN (1925a) Studies on filterable viruses; I. Cultivation of vaccine virus. Am J Pathol 1(3):325–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Parker F, Nye RN (1925b) Studies on filterable viruses; II. Cultivation of herpes virus. Am J Pathol 1(3):337–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Rivers TM (1927) Filterable viruses. J Bacteriol XIV(4):217–258Google Scholar
  47. Rivers TM, Haggen E, Muckenfuss RS (1929) Observations concerning the persistence of living cells in Maitlands’s medium for the cultivation of vaccine virus. J Exp Med 50:181–187CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Robbins, FC (1991) John Franklin Enders (February, 1897 – September 8, 1985). Proc Am Philos Soc 135(3):453–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Robbins FC, Enders JF, Weller TH et al (1951) Studies on the cultivation of poliomyelitis viruses in tissue culture; V. The direct isolation and serologic identification of virus strains in tissue culture from patients with nonparalytic and paralytic poliomyelitis. Am J Hyg 54:286–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Robbins FC, Weller JF, Enders TH (1950) Cytopathogenic effect of poliomyelitis viruses in vitro on human embryonic tissues. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 75(2):370–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Robbins FC, Weller JF, Enders TH (1952) Studies on the cultivation of poliomyelitis viruses in tissue culture; II. The propagation of the poliomyelitis viruses in roller-tube culture of various human tissues. J Immunol 69(6):673–694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Rous P. (1911) The relations of embryonic tissue and tumor in mixed grafts. J Exp Med 13(2):239–247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Roush SW, Murphy TV (2007) Comparisons in morbidity and mortality for vaccine-preventable disease in the United States. JAMA 298:2155–2163CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Sabin AD, Olitsky PK (1936) Cultivation of polio virus in vitro in human embryonic nerve tissue. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 31:357–359Google Scholar
  55. Shope RE (1931) The etiology of swine influenza. Science 73(1886):214–215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Stanley WM (1935) Isolation of a crystalline protein possessing the properties of tobacco-mosaic virus. Science 81(2113):644–645CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Steinhardt E, Israeli C, Lambert RA (1913) Studies on the cultivation of the virus of vaccinia. J Infect Dis 13:294–300Google Scholar
  58. Theunissen B (1996) The beginnings of the “Delft Tradition” revisited: Martinus W. Beijerinck and the genetic of microorganisms. J Hist Biol 29:197–228CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. van Helvoort T (1994) History of virus research in the twentieth century: the problem of conceptual continuity. Hist Sci 32(2):185–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Weller TH (2004) Growing pathogens in tissue cultures: fifty years in academic tropical medicine, pediatrics, and virology. Boston Medical Library, Canton, MAGoogle Scholar
  61. Weller TH, Enders JF (1948) Production of hemagglutinin by mumps and Influenza A viruses in suspended cell tissue cultures. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 69:124–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Weller TH, Robbins FC (1991) John Franklin Enders 1897–1985. Biogr Mem Natl Acad Sci 60:47–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Weller TH, Robbins JF, Enders JF (1949) Cultivation of poliomyelitis virus in cultures of human foreskin and embryonic tissues. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 72(1):153–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Weller TH, Enders JF, Robbins FC et al (1952) Studies on the cultivation of poliomyelitis viruses in tissue culture; I. The propagation of poliomyelitis viruses in suspended cell cultures of various human tissues. J Immunol 69(6):645–671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Woodruff AM, Goodpasture EW (1931) The susceptibility of the chorio-allantoic membrane of chick embryos to infection with the fowl-pox virus. Am J Pathol 7(3):209–222.5PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas C. Artenstein
    • 1
  • Andrew W. Artenstein
    • 2
  1. 1.Carleton CollegeNorthfieldUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Pathogens, Memorial Hospital of Rhode IslandThe Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA

Personalised recommendations