Toxoid Vaccines

  • John D. Grabenstein


Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis represented important causes of morbidity and mortality well into the early part of the twentieth century. With advances in bacteriology deriving from the work of Pasteur and Koch during the latter portion of the nineteenth century, the organisms responsible for each of these serious infections were cultivated, leading to some of the earliest and most dramatic successes in vanquishing bacterial infections by immunization. Insights derived from the study of the organisms informed the fledgling field of immunology as scientists harnessed antibodies to neutralize toxins, transformed toxins into vaccines, and identified chemical substances, adjuvants, to enhance immune responsiveness. Such advances relieved humanity of great suffering and laid the groundwork for vaccines against other pathogens.


Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Tetanus Toxoid Diphtheria Toxin Pertussis Vaccine Grand Rapid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medical Affairs & PolicyMerck Vaccines & Infectious DiseasesWest PointUSA

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