Polysaccharide Vaccines

  • Andrew W. Artenstein


By the first half of the twentieth century, many of the most clinically important infectious diseases of humans, including smallpox, yellow fever, and influenza, had been controlled through the use of either live-attenuated or killed-whole cell vaccines. Certain bacterial infections, such as cholera and typhoid had been successfully addressed using killed organisms (refer to Chap. 6); others, such as tetanus and diphtheria, had been controlled using vaccines comprising immunogenic bacterial component proteins (refer to Chap. 7). Vaccinology’s subsequent “golden age,” made possible by advances in the laboratory in the late 1940s that allowed the growth of viruses ex vivo in cell culture systems (refer to Chap. 9), led directly to successful vaccines against the scourges of childhood, such as polio, measles, mumps, and rubella. Despite these apparent successes, other clinically important pathogens continued to elude a vaccine solution. It was through the study of these organisms that landmark discoveries in microbiology and immunology paved the way for a novel approach to vaccines.


Pneumococcal Disease Pneumococcal Vaccine Capsular Polysaccharide Meningococcal Disease Pneumococcal Pneumonia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author would like to thank Dr. Emil Gotschlich for a critical review of the manuscript and for helpful suggestions


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Pathogens, Memorial Hospital of Rhode IslandThe Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA

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