Varicella and Zoster

Chapter

Abstract

It has been more than 30 years since Michiaki Takahashi of Osaka, Japan, attenuated the varicella–zoster virus (VZV) to produce the Oka vaccine strain of live, attenuated varicella vaccine. The initial trials of safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy were carried out in Japan in the early 1970s. Subsequently, large-scale confirmatory studies of immunogenicity and safety were performed mainly in the United States. Initially, these involved immunocompromised children, but later healthy children were immunized, and there was greater interest in vaccinating healthy populations than immunocompromised ones. These clinical trials culminated in the licensure of a single dose of varicella vaccine for all American children in 1995. Currently, the vaccine is used to prevent chickenpox worldwide and has been licensed for universal vaccination in many countries including Australia, Canada, Germany, Israel, Qatar, Sicily, South Korea, Taiwan, and Uruguay (Gershon et al. 2008). While it has not achieved general acceptance in Japan, interest in its use there is increasing. While it took many years to gain general acceptance in Japan, the vaccine is now being used more and more in that country. The latest exciting advance regarding the Oka vaccine is that a high-titered formulation is now being used as a therapeutic vaccine to boost immunity to VZV in the elderly with latent infection in order to prevent zoster. This chapter discusses the almost 40-year saga of the development of vaccines against VZV.

Keywords

Placebo Hepatitis Attenuation Leukemia Pneumonia 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

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