Divided We Stand? American and European Perspectives in the Fight Against Transnational Terrorism



In the aftermath of the attacks on September 11, 2001 (hereinafter 9/11), the members of the United Nations (UN) developed a common front against international terrorism through the widespread adoption of 16 international counter-terrorism legal instruments and a pledge to foster inter-state cooperation. However, differences soon re-emerged in the implementation phase. While the government of the United States favored an exceptional or “war” approach to counter-terrorism, its European Union (EU) counterparts opted mainly for a rule of law or criminal justice approach. To assess the impact of these two approaches on international human rights, I examine counter-terrorism in the United States after 9/11, Spain after March 11, 2004 (hereinafter 3/11) and the United Kingdom (UK) after July 7, 2005 (hereinafter 7/7), with a focus on the right to due process and the right to be free from torture. Based on these case studies, I conclude, first, that since none of the three states has suffered another successful attack, the rule of law approach is at least as effective as the “war” approach. Second, States that follow the “war” approach are more prone to violations of human rights. And third, that upholding the rule of law fosters relevant counter-terrorism cooperation between the United States and Europe.


United Nations Geneva Convention Pretrial Detention Degrading Treatment Military Commission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Allen, N. (2009, September 7). Prosecutors pursued retrial to justify liquids ban. The Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/terrorism-in-the-uk/6152046/WITH-LEGAL-Prosecutors-pursu.
  2. Alvarez, J. E.(2006). Torturing the Law. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 37 (2/3), 175–223.Google Scholar
  3. American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). (2002, December 6). How the PATRIOT Act redefines “domestic terrorism.” Retrieved from http://www.aclu.org/national-security/how-usa-patriot-act-redefines-domestic-terrorism.
  4. American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). (2009, August 24). Department of Justice Office of Legal Counsel. Letters and memos to CIA regarding detention and interrogation policies (documents responsive to 2004 torture FOIA). Retrieved from http://www.aclu.org/safefree/torture/40834res20090824.html.
  5. Amnesty International. (2008, February 20). Court win for man wrongly accused of terrorism. Retrieved from http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/good-news/court-win-for-man-wrongly-accused-terroris.
  6. Archick, K., Ek, C., Gallis, P., Miko, F. T., & Woehrel, S. (2006, July 24). European approaches to homeland security and counterterrorism. In Congressional research service report for Congress. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL33573.pdf.
  7. Audiencia Nacional (Sala de lo Penal, Seccion segunda). (2007, October 31). Sentencia № 65/2007. Retrieved from http://www.asociacion11m.org/sumario_20_04_sentencia_an.php.
  8. BBC News. (2003, March 16). Azores summit statement. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2855567.stm.
  9. BBC News. (2006, February 1). Leak disputes Menezes death story. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4157892.stm.
  10. BBC News. (2006, August 9). Terror “may force freedom curbs.” Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/5257518.stm.
  11. BBC News. (2008, September 8). Three guilty of bomb conspiracy. Retrieved from http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/i7528483.stm.
  12. BBC News. (2009, January 15). Miliband regrets “war on terror.” Retrieved from http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/7829946.stm?ad.
  13. BBC News. (2009, September 14). Airline plot trio get life terms. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8254156.stm.
  14. BBC News. (2009, October 2.) IPCC sticks to Menezes decision. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/uk_news/2826789.stm.
  15. Bernstein, R. (2004, March 15). A shocking confrontation with terror on home turf. New York Times, p. A13.Google Scholar
  16. Blair, T. (2005, August 5). Full text of Blair’s statement on extremism. Retrieved from http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article551991.ece.
  17. Borders, W. (1979, March 17). Torture of Ulster prisoners indicated in British report. New York Times, p. A3.Google Scholar
  18. Boumediene v. Bush, 128 S. Ct. 2229 (2008, June 12).Google Scholar
  19. Brown, G. (2009, March 22). We are about to take the war against terror to a new level. Guardian.co.uk: The Observer. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/mar/22/gordon-brown-terrorism.
  20. Bush, G. W. (2001, September 20). Address to a joint session of Congress and the American people. In J. F. Hoge & G. Rose (Eds.), (2005), Understanding the war on terror (p. 185). New York: Foreign Affairs.Google Scholar
  21. Bush, G. W. (2002, February 7). Memorandum on humane treatment of al Qaeda and Taliban detainees. In K. J. Greenberg, & Dratel, J. L. (Eds.), (2005), The torture papers: The road to Abu Ghraib (pp. 134–135). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Bybee, J. S. (2002, August 1). Memorandum to Alberto R. Gonzales, Counsel to the President, on Standards of Conduct for Interrogation under 18 U.S.C. §§ 2340-2340A (Washington D.C.). In K. J. Greenberg, & J. L. Dratel, (Eds.), (2005), The torture papers: The road to Abu Ghraib (pp. 172–217). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Center for Constitutional Rights. (n.d.). Military Commissions Act of 2006: A summary of the law. Retrieved from http://ccrjustice.org/files/report_MCA.pdf.
  24. Center for Constitutional Rights. (2007, April). Supreme Court denies immediate review of Guantanamo cases. Retrieved from http://ccrjustice.org/newsroom/press-releases/supreme-court-denies-immediate-review-guantanamo-cases.
  25. Comisión de Investigación del 11-M (2005, June 8). Dictamen de conclusiones y recomendaciones. Retrieved from http://www.elpais.com/elpaismedia/ultimahora/media/200506/09/espana/20050609elpepunac_4_P_PDF.pdf.
  26. The Committee on International Rights. (2005). Torture by proxy: International and domestic law applicable to “extraordinary renditions.” The Record of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York 60 (1), 13–196.Google Scholar
  27. Conde-Pumpido afirma en Panamá que la lucha contra el terrorismo no puede ser planteada en términos bélicos. (2008, May 29). Madrid: Europa Press. Retrieved from http://www.lukor.com/not-esp/terrorismo/portada/08052938.htm.
  28. Conroy, J. (2007, March 2). Confessions of a torturer: An army interrogator’s story. Chicago Reader, Section 1, 1 & 14–8.).Google Scholar
  29. Convention against Torture, Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment, G.A. Res. 39/46, 39 UN GAOR, Supp. (No. 51), UN Doc. A/39/51, at 197 (1984). [The CAT was adopted on 10 December 1984 and entered into force on 26 June 1987].Google Scholar
  30. Council of the European Union, Justice and Home Affairs Council. (2005, December 1). The European Union counter-terrorism strategy. Retrieved from http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/jha/87257.pdf.
  31. Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights. (2007, June 7). Secret detentions and illegal transfers of detainees involving Council of Europe member states: Second report: Explanatory memorandum [Rapporteur: Mr Dick Marty, Switzerland, ALDE]. Retrieved from http://assembly.coe.int/committeeDocs/2007/Emarty_20070608_noEmbargo.pdf.
  32. Counter-Terrorism Committee. (2009, September 18 ) International laws. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/sc/ctc/laws.html.
  33. Cowell, A. (2006, August 24). Court permits British investigators to hold 10 terror suspects longer. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/24/world/europe/24britain.html?_r=1.
  34. Department for Communities and Local Government. (2007, April). Preventing violent extremism: Winning hearts and minds. London: Crown. Retrieved from http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/communities/pdf/320752.pdf.
  35. Detainee Treatment Act (DTA), Tit. X, 119 Stat. 2739 (2005, December 30).Google Scholar
  36. Dodd, V. (2008, September 11). CPS applies for retrial over plane “bomb plot.” Guardian.co.uk. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2008/sep/11/4.
  37. Dodd, V. (2009, September 7). Three guilty of transatlantic bomb plot. Guardian.co.uk. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/sep/07/plan-bomb-plot-trialo-verdicts/print.
  38. Dyer, C. (2005, June 11). Britain accused of creating terror fears. Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_newsstory/0,3604,1504231,00.html.
  39. Enders, W. (2006, June). Distribution of transnational terrorism among countries by income class and geography after 9/11. International Studies Quarterly 50 (2), 367–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fisher, L. (2005). Military tribunals and presidential power. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press.Google Scholar
  41. Gaynor, T. (2004, March 12). Aznar put war on terror at the heart of his government. The Independent. Retrieved from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/aznar-put-war-on-terror-at-the-heart-of-his-government-566053.html.
  42. Government abandons 42-day detention plan. (2008, October 13). The Independent. Retrieved from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/government-abandons-42day-detention-plan-960075.html.
  43. Gordillo, I. (2003, December 6). La justicia pudo con los GAL. El Mundo no. 5113. Retrieved from http://www.elmundo.es/papel/2003/12/06/docume/1537134.html.
  44. Gordon, P. H. (2007, November/December). Can the war on terror be won? How to fight the right war. Foreign Affairs 86 (6), 53–66.Google Scholar
  45. Greenberg, K. J. & Dratel, J. L. (Eds.). (2005). The torture papers: The road to Abu Ghraib. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Grey, S. (2006). Ghost plane: The true story of the CIA rendition and torture program. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin.Google Scholar
  47. Gross, O. & Ní Aoláin, F. (2006). Law in times of crisis: Emergency powers in theory and practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hamdam v. Rumsfeld, 548 U.S. (2006, June 29).Google Scholar
  49. Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 542 U.S. 507 (2004, June 28).Google Scholar
  50. Her Majesty’s Courts System (2006, 25 January). The Crown Prosecution System. Retrieved from http://www.hmcourts-service.gov.uk/infoabout/cps/index.htm.
  51. Her Majesty’s Courts System (2007, June 4). Court of Appeal. Retrieved from http://www.hmcourts-service.gov.uk/cms/courtofappeal.htm.
  52. Her Majesty’s Courts System (2009, April 2). The Crown Court. Retrieved from http://www.hmcourts-service.gov.uk/infoabout/crown/index.htm.
  53. Human Rights Watch. (2005, January 27). Spain: Counterterrorism measures infringe basic rights: Leadership in confronting terrorism requires better rights protection for suspects. Retrieved from http://hrw.org/english/docs/2005/01/27/spain10066.htm.
  54. Human Rights Watch. (2006, July 1). United Kingdom: Parliamentary committee denounces British torture practices. Retrieved from http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2006/07/01/united-kingdom-parliamentary-committe-denounces-british-t.
  55. Human Rights Watch. (2006, November). Dangerous ambivalence: UK policy on torture since 9/11. Retrieved from http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2006/11/02/dangerous-ambivalence.
  56. International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect (n.d). An introduction to the Responsibility to Protect. Retrieved from http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/index.php/about-rtop.
  57. International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). (2004, February). Report on the treatment by the coalition forces of prisoners of war and other protected persons by the Geneva Conventions in Iraq during arrest, internment and interrogation. Retrieved from http://www.derechos.org/nizkor/us/doc/icrc-prisoner-report-feb-2004.pdf.
  58. International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). (2007, February). Report on the treatment of fourteen “high value detainees” in CIA custody. Retrieved from http://www.nybooks.com/icrc-report.pdf.
  59. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, G.A. Res. 2200A (XXI), UN Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 UNTS 171, reprinted in 6 ILM 368 (1967).Google Scholar
  60. Kelly, M. L. (2009, August 6). Obama aide seeks new war-on-terrorism approach. NPR.org. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=111629560.
  61. Lago, I. & Montero, J. R. (2006, July). The 2004 election in Spain: Terrorism, accountability, and voting. Taiwan Journal of Democracy 2 (1), 13–36.Google Scholar
  62. Lichtblau, E. (2005, January 7). Gonzales speaks against torture during hearing. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/01/07/politics/07gonzales.html.
  63. Macías, M.L, (2002, February 22). Speech before a NATO Seminar on Terrorism (Warsaw, Poland). In D. A. Miller, (Ed.), (2003), Terrorism [Great Speeches in History Series] (pp. 118, 122). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven.Google Scholar
  64. Malingre, V. (2009, May 2). Pas de process pour les attentats de 2005 à Londres. LeMonde.fr Retrieved from http://www.lemonde.fr/cgi-bin/ACHATS/acheter.cgil?Offre=ARCHIVES&type_item=ART-ARCH_30J&.
  65. Matthew, R. & Shambaugh, G. (2005). The limits of terrorism: A network perspective. International Studies Review 7 (4), 617–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mayer, J. (2006, July 3). Letter from Washington: The hidden power: The legal mind behind the White House’s war on terror. The New Yorker 82 (20), 44–55. Retrieved from http://www.lexisnexis.com/us/lnacademic/search/homesubmitForm.do.Google Scholar
  67. Mercado, F. (2006, April 11). La audiencia nacional juzgará a 29 personas por los atentados del 11-M. Madrid: ElPais.com. Retrieved from http://www.elpais.com/articulo/espana/Audiencia/Nacional/juzgara/29/personas/atentados/11-M/elpporesp/20060411elpepunac_3/Tes.
  68. Military Commissions Act, Pub. L. No. 109-336, 120 Stat. 2600-2637 (codified in scattered sections of 10 and 18 U.S.C.), (2006, October 17).Google Scholar
  69. Military Order on Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War against Terrorism (2001, November 16). 3 C.F.R. 918 (2001comp.); 66 Fed. Reg. 57,833. In K. J. Greenberg, & J. L. Dratel, (Eds.), (2005), The torture papers: The road to Abu Ghraib (pp. 25-28). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Miller, D. A. (Ed.). (2003). Terrorism [Great Speeches in History series]. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven.Google Scholar
  71. Nota del Ministerio de Justicia de España al informe ¿Sentando ejemplo? Medidas antiterroristas en España presentado por Human Rights Watch. Retrieved from http://hrw.org/spanish/docs/2005/02/15/spain10360_txt.htm.
  72. The 9/11 Commission. (2004). The 9/11 commission report including executive summary: Final report of the national commission on terrorist attacks upon the United States. Baton Rouge, LA: Claitor.Google Scholar
  73. Obama, B. (2009, May 21). Remarks by the President on National Security. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-by-the-President-On-National-Security-5-21-09/.
  74. O’Boyle, M. (1977, October). Torture and emergency powers under the European Convention on Human Rights: Ireland v. the United Kingdom. American Journal of International Law 71 (4), 674–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (2002, September 23.). Note to the chair of the counter-terrorism committee: A human rights perspective on counter-terrorist measures. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/en/sc/ctc/docs/rights/2002_09_23_ctcchair_note.pdf.
  76. Padilla v. Rumsfeld, 352 F.3d 695 (2003, December 18).Google Scholar
  77. Patriot Act, 115 STAT. 272-402, Public Law 107-56 (2001, October 26).Google Scholar
  78. Peters, E. (1996). Torture (Expanded ed.). Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  79. Phifer, J. (2002, October 11). Memorandum for Commander, Joint Task Force 170 on Request for Approval of Counter-Resistance Strategies. In K. J. Greenberg & J. L. Dratel, (Eds.), (2005), The torture papers: The road to Abu Ghraib (pp. 227–228). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Philbin, P. F. & Yoo, J. C. (2001, December 28). Memorandum for General Counsel William J. Haynes, II, U.S. DoD. In K. J. Greenberg & J. L. Dratel, (Eds.), (2005), The torture papers: The road to Abu Ghraib (pp. 29–37). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Pious, R. (2006). The war on terrorism and the rule of law. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury.Google Scholar
  82. Rasul v. Bush, 542 U.S. 466, 321 F.3d 1134, reversed and remanded (2004, June 28).Google Scholar
  83. Rodríguez, J. A. (2005, June 23). El congreso concluye que el gobierno de Aznar “manipuló y tergiversó” tras el 11-M. ElPaís.com. Retrieved from http://www.elpais.com/articulo/espana/Congreso/concluye/Gobierno/Aznar/manipulo/tergiverso/11-M/elpporesp/20050623elpepinac_11/Tes.
  84. Rodríguez, J. A. (2007, November 2). Diez condenados por el 11-M inician una huelga de hambre. Madrid: ElPais.com. Retrieved from http://www.elpais.com/articulo/espana/condenados/11-M/huelga/hambre/elpepuesp/20071102el.
  85. Rumsfeld, D. (2003, January 15). Memorandum for Commander USSOUTHCOM on counter-resistence techniques. (15 January 2003). In K. J. Greenberg & J. L. Dratel, (Eds.), (2005), The torture papers: The road to Abu Ghraib (p. 239). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Rumsfeld v. Padilla, 124 S. Ct. 2711, 2729 (2004, June 28).Google Scholar
  87. Sandler, T. & Arce, D. G. (2008, March 6). Transnational terrorism [Challenge Paper]. Copenhagen Consensus Center. Retrieved from http://www.copenhagenconsensus.com/Files/Filer/CC08/Papers/Papers%20210208/CC0809_TERRORISM_060308.pdf.
  88. Sciolino, E. & Van Natta, Jr., D. (2005, July 10). For a decade, London thrived as a busy crossroads of terror: In London, terrorists found a home for a decade and people to carry out threats. New York Times, pp. 1, 9.Google Scholar
  89. Second periodic report of the United States of America to the Committee Against Torture. (2005, May 6). University of Minnesota Human Rights Library. Retrieved from http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/cat/us-statereport2005.html.
  90. Shuster, M. (2005, July 7). How al Qaeda has evolved since Sept. 11. NPR.org. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4734552.
  91. Soering v. United Kingdom, 11 Eur. Ct. H.R. (ser. A, no. 161) (1989, July 7).Google Scholar
  92. Spanish Constitution of 1978, BOE núm. 311.1 de 29 de diciembre.Google Scholar
  93. Spanish Ministry of Justice. (2005, February 14). Nota del Ministerio de Justicia de España al Informe ¿Sentando ejemplo? Medidas antiterroristas en España presentado por Human R. Retrieved from http://www.hrw.org/es/news/2005/02/14/nota-del-ministerio-de-justicia-de-espa-al-informe-sentando-ejemplo-medidas-antiterr.
  94. Spanish Penal Code. Ley Orgánica 10/1995, de 23 Noviembre, del Código Penal, BOE núm. 281, de 24 de noviembre; corrección de errores en BOE núm. 54, de 2 de marzo de 1996. The modifications can be checked in BOE no. 283 (26 November 2003), no. 65 (16 March 2004), no. 80 (2 April 2004) and no. 309 (26 December 2003).Google Scholar
  95. Sunderland, J. (2008, April 22). Algeria criticizes UK’s human rights record. Open Democracy: Our Kingdom. Retrieved from http://www.hrw.org/legacy/English/docs/2008/0423/uk18621.htm.
  96. Thieux, L. (2004). European security and global terrorism: The strategic aftermath of the Madrid bombings. Perspectives 22, 59–74.Google Scholar
  97. Third Geneva Convention, Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 6 U.S.T. 3316, 3320, T.I.A,.S. No. 3364. Aug. 12, 1949, [1955].Google Scholar
  98. Transnational Terrorism, Security, and the Rule of Law. (2008, October 27). Case study: Spain: The Ethical Justness of Counter-Terrorism Measures. Work Package 6, Deliverable 12 b, compiled and submitted by FRIDE. Retrieved from http://www.transnationalterrorism.eu/tekst/publications/Spain%20case%20study%20(WP%206%20Del%2012b).pdf.
  99. Transnational Terrorism, Security, and the Rule of Law. (2008, November 12). Transnational terrorism: Theoretical approaches and policy discourse. Work Package 2, Deliverable 3. Retrieved from http://www.transnationalterrorism.eu/tekst/publications/WP2%20Del%203.pdf.
  100. Travis, A. (2009, May 21). Home Office rejects control order time limit. Guardian.co.uk Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2009/may/21/terrorism-ocontrol-orders-time-limit.
  101. Tribunal Supremo (sala de lo penal). (2008, July 17). Sentencia no. 503/2008, Recurso de Casación no. 10012/2008 P (includes Segunda Sentencia). Retrieved from http://supremo.vlex.es/vid/delito-terrorismo-ta-43498442#freetrial.
  102. UN General Assembly, Human Rights Council. (2008, May 23). Universal periodic review: Report of the working group on the universal periodic review; United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. A/HRC/8/25. Retrieved from http://lib.ohchr.org/HRBodies/UPR/Documents/Session1/GB/A_HRC_8_25_United_Kingdom_E.pdf.
  103. UN General Assembly, Human Rights Council. (2008, December 16). Promotion and protection of all human rights, civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to development: Report of the special rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, Addendum to Spain [Rapporteur Martin Scheinin]. A/HRC/10/3/Add.2 Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/type.MISSION…498c24562.0.html.
  104. UN General Assembly, Human Rights Council. (2009, February 13). Information presented by the National Human Rights Commission of Spain. A/HRC/10/NI/2. Retrieved from http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G09/109/05/PDF/G0910905.pdf?OpenElement.
  105. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), G.A. Res. 217A (III), UN Doc. A/810, at 71 (1948).Google Scholar
  106. U. S. Department of State. (2001, December 19). U.S. Report to the UN counter-terrorism committee. Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/p/io/rls/rpt/2001/6917.htm.
  107. U.S. Department of State. (2005, May 6). Second Periodic Report of the United States of America to the Committee Against Torture. Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/45738.htm.
  108. U. S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. (2008, March 11). Spain: Country reports on human rights practices 2007. Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2007/100586.htm.
  109. U. S. Department of State, Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism. (2008, April 30). Country reports on terrorism 2007. Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/105904.pdf.
  110. U. S. Department of State, Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism. (2009, April 30). Country reports on terrorism 2008. Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/crt/2008/122410.htm.
  111. Van Bergen, J. & Valentine, D. (2005–2006). The dangerous world of indefinite detentions: Vietnam to Abu Ghraib. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 37, 449–508.Google Scholar
  112. Wheeler, J. (2000). Saving strangers: Humanitarian intervention in international society. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  113. White, J. (2005, December 16). President relents, backs torture ban: McCain proposal had veto-proof support. Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/15/AR2005121502241.html.
  114. Yoldi, J. (2006, November 1). La audiencia cierra la investigación del 11-M y da “luz verde” al juicio. Madrid: ElPais.com. Retrieved from http://www.elpais.com/articulo/espana/Audiencia/cierra/investigacion/11-M/da/luz/verde/juicio/elpepiesp/20061101elpepinac_6/Tes.
  115. Zabel, R. B. & Benjamin, Jr., J. J. (2009, July). In pursuit of justice: Prosecuting terrorism cases in the federal courts: 2009 update and recent developments. Human Rights First. Retrieved from http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/pdf/090723-LS-in-pursuit-justice-09-update.pdf.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceJohn Jay College of Criminal JusticeNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations