Methods in Cellular and Molecular Pathology

  • Paul Komminoth
  • Axel Walch
  • Martin Werner
  • Aurel A. Perren


This is an overview and introduction to cellular and molecular methods, which are applied in diagnostic and investigative endocrine pathology. In the first part of the chapter, the principles of immunohistochemical techniques are discussed, including necessary controls and an approach to test new antibodies. The second part of the chapter deals with molecular methods. After a general introduction to molecular biology, an overview of methods is provided which are applied in situ to identify DNA, specific mRNAs and chromosomal structures at a cellular level, such as in situ hybridization (ISH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and in situ proteomics. The third part of the chapter focuses on liquid-based molecular methods, which are applied in endocrine pathology. They include microdissection of cell groups for molecular analyses, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for DNA and RNA detection as well as the analysis of mutations, loss of heterozygosity and clonality. Furthermore, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and the RNA expression array technology to identify chromosomal gains and losses as well as gene expression are discussed.


Molecular pathology Methods Immunohistochemistry PCR In situ hybridization In situ PCR CGH Array – applications 



We thank Parvin Saremaslani, Seraina Muletta-Feurer, Katrin Rütimann, Claudia Matter and Sonja Schmid for technical support; Stefan Wey, Norbert Wey and Stephanie Kaufmann for photographic and computer-assisted reproductions; and Susanna Komminoth-Stamm for preparing parts of the manuscript.

This chapter is dedicated to Hubert J. Wolfe, a pioneer in molecular endocrine pathology.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Komminoth
    • 1
  • Axel Walch
  • Martin Werner
  • Aurel A. Perren
  1. 1.Institute of Pathology, Stadtspital TriemliZürichSwitzerland

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