Chemical Forces

  • Hans Frauenfelder
Part of the Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMEDICAL)


“Strong” and “weak” forces are crucial for biomolecular structure and function. The “strong” ones hold the backbone permanently together; the “weak” ones allow the protein to form its three-dimensional structure and to fluctuate around the main structure. Much biological action is intimately related to movements. A knowledge of the various forces is therefore necessary for an understanding of structure and function.


Dipole Moment Proton Transfer Electric Dipole Moment Ionic Bond Gibbs Energy Change 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Frauenfelder
    • 1
  1. 1.Theory DivisionLos Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA

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