Encapsulation of Enzymes and Peptides

  • Gabrie M. H. MeestersEmail author


A large part of formulated peptides and proteins, e.g., enzymes used as food ingredients, are formulated in a liquid form. Often, they are dissolved in water to which glycerol or sorbitol is added to reduce the water activity of the liquid, thus reducing the change of microbial growth. Still, there are reasons to formulate them in a solid form. Often, these reasons are stability, since a dry formulation is often much better than liquid formulations, and less transportation cost, since less mass is transported if one gets rid of the liquid; however, most of the times, the reason is that the product is mixed with a solid powder. Here, a liquid addition would lead to lump formation.

Additional issues that play a role when formulating these products in a solid form are, for example, allergenicity, dust reduction, dosing accuracy, and dissolution.

Stability in a solid formulation is often much better than in a liquid formulation, since the water activity is low. Often, stabilizers are added to the solid forms to protect the proteins against denaturation.


High Shear Encapsulation Efficiency Liquid Bridge Binder Liquid Dose Accuracy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Anjani K, Kailasapathy K, Philips M (2007) Microencapsulation of enzymes for potential application in acceleration of cheese ripening. Int Dairy J 17:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Harz HP, Betz R, Schöner FJ, Meesters GM, Andela CSM (2000) Polymer-coated, granulated enzyme-containing feed additives and method for production thereof. Patents DE 19929257, EP 1189518 or WO 0100042Google Scholar
  3. Barendse RCM, Meesters G, Harz HP (1998) Carbohydrate-based enzyme granulates. EP986313/WO9854980Google Scholar
  4. Heinzen Ch. (1995) Herstellung von monodispersen Mikrokugeln durch Hydroprillen. Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ZurichGoogle Scholar
  5. Kailasapathy K, Lam SH (2005) Application of encapsulated enzymes to accelerate cheese ripening. Int Dairy J 15:929–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Magee EL, Olsen NF (1981) Microencapsulation of cheese ripening systems; stability of microcapsules. J Dairy Sci 64:611–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Meesters GMH (1992) Mechanisms of droplet formation. Thesis, Delft University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  8. Markussen EK, Schmidt AW (1977) Verfahren zur herstellung eines Enzymgranulats, das dabei erhaltene Produkt und seine Verwendung. DE2730481 or US4106991Google Scholar
  9. Nielsen TK, Markussen EK (1971) Enzympräparat und Verfahren zu seiner Herstellung. DE2137043Google Scholar
  10. Öngen G, Yilmaz G, Jongboom ROJ, Feil H (2002) Encapsulation of α-amylase in starch matrix. Carbohydr Polym 50:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Schubert H (1993) Instantization of powdered food product. Int Chem Eng 33(1):28–45Google Scholar
  12. Schubert H (1981) Instanteigenschaften von Agglomerierten stoffen. International symposium of agglomeration, Nuremberg, A68–A82Google Scholar
  13. Walde P, Ichikawa S (2001) Enzymes inside lipid vesicles: preparation, reactivity and application. Biomol Eng 18:143–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Yilmaz G, Öngen G, Jongboom ROJ, Feil H, van Dijk C, Hennink WE (2002) Modulated release of a volatile compound from starch matrixes via enzymatically controlled degradation. Biomacromolecules 3:305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DSM Food SpecialtiesDelftThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations