Encapsulation of Enzymes and Peptides
A large part of formulated peptides and proteins, e.g., enzymes used as food ingredients, are formulated in a liquid form. Often, they are dissolved in water to which glycerol or sorbitol is added to reduce the water activity of the liquid, thus reducing the change of microbial growth. Still, there are reasons to formulate them in a solid form. Often, these reasons are stability, since a dry formulation is often much better than liquid formulations, and less transportation cost, since less mass is transported if one gets rid of the liquid; however, most of the times, the reason is that the product is mixed with a solid powder. Here, a liquid addition would lead to lump formation.
Additional issues that play a role when formulating these products in a solid form are, for example, allergenicity, dust reduction, dosing accuracy, and dissolution.
Stability in a solid formulation is often much better than in a liquid formulation, since the water activity is low. Often, stabilizers are added to the solid forms to protect the proteins against denaturation.
KeywordsHigh Shear Encapsulation Efficiency Liquid Bridge Binder Liquid Dose Accuracy
- Harz HP, Betz R, Schöner FJ, Meesters GM, Andela CSM (2000) Polymer-coated, granulated enzyme-containing feed additives and method for production thereof. Patents DE 19929257, EP 1189518 or WO 0100042Google Scholar
- Barendse RCM, Meesters G, Harz HP (1998) Carbohydrate-based enzyme granulates. EP986313/WO9854980Google Scholar
- Heinzen Ch. (1995) Herstellung von monodispersen Mikrokugeln durch Hydroprillen. Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ZurichGoogle Scholar
- Meesters GMH (1992) Mechanisms of droplet formation. Thesis, Delft University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
- Markussen EK, Schmidt AW (1977) Verfahren zur herstellung eines Enzymgranulats, das dabei erhaltene Produkt und seine Verwendung. DE2730481 or US4106991Google Scholar
- Nielsen TK, Markussen EK (1971) Enzympräparat und Verfahren zu seiner Herstellung. DE2137043Google Scholar
- Schubert H (1993) Instantization of powdered food product. Int Chem Eng 33(1):28–45Google Scholar
- Schubert H (1981) Instanteigenschaften von Agglomerierten stoffen. International symposium of agglomeration, Nuremberg, A68–A82Google Scholar