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Materials for Encapsulation

  • Christine WandreyEmail author
  • Artur Bartkowiak
  • Stephen E. Harding
Chapter

Abstract

A multitude of substances are known which can be used to entrap, coat, or encapsulate solids, liquids, or gases of different types, origins, and properties. However, only a limited number thereof have been certified for food applications as “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) materials. It is worth mentioning that the regulations for food additives are much stricter than for pharmaceuticals or cosmetics. Consequently, some compounds, which are widely accepted for drug encapsulation, have not been approved for use in the food industry. Moreover, different regulations can exist for different continents, economies, or countries, a problem which has to be addressed by food producers who wish to export their products or who intend expanding their markets.

Abbreviations

Chemical Names

CMC

Carboxymethyl cellulose

EMC

Ethyl methylcellulose

GA

Gum arabic

GG

Gellan gum

GK

Gum karaya

GT

Gum tragacanth

HEC

Hydroxyethyl cellulose

HPC

Hydroxypropyl cellulose

HPMC

Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose

LBG

Locust bean gum

MC

Methylcellulose

MG

Mesquite gum

PVP

Polyvinylpyrrolidone

SSPS

Soluble soybean polysaccharide

Organizations/Services

CAS

Chemical Abstract Service

EFSA

European Food Safety Authority

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization

FDA

Food and Drug Administration (US)

JECFA

Joint Expert Committee Food and Agriculture

SCF

Scientific Committee on Food

WHO

World Health Organization

Characteristics

ADI

Acceptable daily intake

DA

Degree of acetylation

DE

Degree of esterification

DE

Dextrose equivalent

DP

Degree of polymerization

DR

Degree of reaction

DS

Degree of substitution

GRAS

Generally recognized as safe

GSFA

General standards for food additives

HM

High methoxylated

LM

Low methoxylated

MM

Molar mass

MMD

Molar mass distribution

WHO

World Health Organization

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the support of Ingrid Margot during the preparation of the manuscript. We also thank Redouan Mahou for designing the chemical structures.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine Wandrey
    • 1
    Email author
  • Artur Bartkowiak
    • 2
  • Stephen E. Harding
    • 3
  1. 1.Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de Médecine Régénérative et de PharmacobiologieLausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.Chair of Food Packaging and BiopolymersThe Westpomeranian University of TechnologySzczecinPoland
  3. 3.National Centre for Macromolecular HydrodynamicsUniversity of Nottingham, School of BiosciencesSutton BoningtonUK

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