Binaural Processing and Auditory Asymmetries

  • David A. Eddins
  • Joseph W. HallIII
Part of the Springer Handbook of Auditory Research book series (SHAR, volume 34)


Many aspects of peripheral and central auditory processing peak by adolescence (Maxon and Hochberg 1982; Hall et al. 2004, 2005) and a growing body of evidence indicates a substantial decline in audition in presenescent adults (Gates et al. 1990; Lee et al. 2005; Grose et al. 2006) that continues to deteriorate with advancing age (for reviews, see Schneider 1997; Divenyi and Simon 1999; Chisholm et al. 2003). The functional significance of this decline is often gauged in terms of the accurate perception of speech in complex acoustic backgrounds (e.g., Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics [CHABA] 1988; van Rooij and Plomp 1990; Humes et al. 1994; Pichora-Fuller 1997; Divenyi et al. 2005), which, in turn, relies on both monaural and binaural auditory processing. Declines with age in monaural and binaural auditory processing are often compounded by concomitant peripheral hearing loss, resulting in reduced audiometric sensitivity, reduced frequency selectivity, and increased linearity of coding of intensity.


Hearing Loss Sound Source Speech Perception Sensorineural Hearing Loss Sound Localization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abel SM, Hay VH (1996) Sound localization. The interaction of aging, hearing loss and hearing protection. Scand Audiol 25:3–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abel SM, Giguere C, Consoli A, Papsin BC (2000) The effect of aging on horizontal plane sound localization. J Acoust Soc Am 108:743–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alden JD, Harrison DW, Snyder KA, Everhart DE (1997) Age differences in intention to left and right hemispace using a dichotic listening paradigm. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 10:239–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arbogast TL, Mason CR, Kidd G Jr. (2002) The effect of spatial separation on informational and energetic masking of speech. J Acoust Soc Am 112:2086–2098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Babkoff H, Muchnik C, Ben-David N, Furst M, Even-Zohar S, Hildesheimer M (2002) Mapping lateralization of click trains in younger and older populations. Hear Res 165:117–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Batteau DW (1967) The role of the pinna in human localization. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B 168:158–180.Google Scholar
  7. Bell DW, Kruel EJ, Nixon JC (1972) Reliability of the modified rhyme test for hearing. J Speech Hear Res 15:287–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bergman M, Blumenfeld VG, Cascardo D, Dash B, Levitt H, Margulies MK (1976) Age-related decrement in hearing for speech: sampling and longitudinal studies. J Gerontol 31:533–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bernstein LR, Trahiotis C (2002) Enhancing sensitivity to interaural delays at high frequencies by using “transposed stimuli.” J Acoust Soc Am 112:1026–1036.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bilger RC, Nuetzel JM, Rabinowitz WM, Rzeczkowski C (1984) Standardization of a test of speech perception in noise. J Speech Hear Res 27:32–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bilger RC, Matthies ML, Hammel DR, Demorest ME (1990) Genetic implications of gender differences in the prevalence of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. J Speech Hear Res 33:418–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Blauert J (1969) Sound localization in the median plane. Acustica 22:205–213.Google Scholar
  13. Blauert J (1983) Spatial Hearing: The Psychophysics of Human Sound Localization. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  14. Broadbent DE, Gregory M (1964) Accuracy of recognition for speech presented to the right and left ears. Q J Exp Psychol 16:359–360.Google Scholar
  15. Brungart DS (2001) Informational and energetic masking effects in the perception of two simultaneous talkers. J Acoust Soc Am 109:1101–1109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Butler RA (1969) Monaural and binaural localization of noise bursts vertically in the median sagittal plane. J Aud Res 3:230–235.Google Scholar
  17. Butler RA (1970) The effect of hearing impairment on locating sound in the vertical plane. Int J Audiol 9:117–126.Google Scholar
  18. Butler RA (1994) Asymmetric performances in monaural localization of sound in space. Neuropsychology 32:221–229.Google Scholar
  19. Butler RA, Planert N (1976) The influence of stimulus bandwidth on localization of sound in space. Percept Psychophys 19:103–108.Google Scholar
  20. Butler RA, Humanski RA, Musicant AD (1990) Binaural and monaural localization of sound in two-dimensional space. Perception 19: 241–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chandler DW, Grantham DW (1990) Minimum audible movement angle in the horizontal plane as a function of stimulus frequency and bandwidth, source azimuth and velocity, and number of ears. J Acoust Soc Am 87:S64.Google Scholar
  22. Chandler DW, Grantham DW (1991) Effects of age on auditory spatial resolution in the horizontal plane. J Acoust Soc Am 89:1994.Google Scholar
  23. Chandler DW, Grantham DW (1992) Minimum audible movement angle in the horizontal plane as a function of stimulus frequency and bandwidth, source azimuth, and velocity. J Acoust Soc Am 91:1624–1636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chisolm TH, Willott JF, Lister JL (2003) The aging auditory system: anatomic and physiologic changes and implications for rehabilitation. Int J Audiol 42:2S2–2S10.Google Scholar
  25. Chmiel R, Jerger J, Murphy E, Pirozzolo F, Tooley-Young C (1997) Unsuccessful use of binaural amplification by an elderly person. J Am Acad Audiol 8:1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Colburn HS, Esquissaud P (1976) An auditory nerve model for interaural time discrimination of high-frequency complex stimuli. J Acoust Soc Am 59:S23.Google Scholar
  27. Committee for Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics (CHABA) (1988) Speech understanding and aging. J Acoust Soc Am 83:859–895.Google Scholar
  28. Cord MT, Surr RK, Walden BE, Olsen L (2002) Performance of directional microphone hearing aids in everyday life. J Am Acad Audiol 13:308–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cord MT, Surr RK, Walden BE, Dyrlund O (2004). Relationship between laboratory measures of directional advantage and everyday success with directional microphone hearing aids. J Am Acad Audiol 15:353–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cranford JL, Boose M, Moore CA (1990) Effects of aging on the precedence effect in sound localization. J Speech Hear Res 33:654–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cranford JL, Morgan M, Scudder R, Moore C (1993) Tracking of “moving” fused auditory images by children. J Speech Hear Res 36:424–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. David EE, Guttman N, van Bergeijk WA (1958) On the mechanism of binaural fusion. J Acoust Soc Am 30:801–802.Google Scholar
  33. Divenyi PL, Haupt KM (1997a) Audiological correlates of speech understanding deficits in elderly listeners with mild-to-moderate hearing loss. I. Age and lateral asymmetry effects. Ear Hear 18:42–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Divenyi PL, Haupt KM (1997b) Audiological correlates of speech understanding deficits in elderly listeners with mild-to-moderate hearing loss. II. Correlational analysis. Ear Hear 18:100–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Divenyi PL, Simon HJ (1999) Hearing in aging: issues old and new. Curr Opin Otolaryngol 7:282–289.Google Scholar
  36. Divenyi PL, Stark PB, Haupt KM (2005) Decline of speech understanding and auditory thresholds in the elderly. J Acoust Soc Am 118:1089–1100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dubno JR, Ahlstrom JB, Horwitz AR (2002) Spectral contributions to the benefit from spatial separation of speech and noise. J Speech Lang Hear Res 45:1297–1310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Dubno JR, Ahlstrom JB, Horwitz AR (2008) Binaural advantage for younger and older adults with normal hearing. J Speech Lang Hear Res 51:539–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Duquesnoy AJ, Plomp R (1980) Effect of reverberation and noise on the intelligibility of sentences in cases of presbyacusis. J Acoust Soc Am 68:537–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Eddins AC, Eddins DA, Coad ML, Lockwood AH (2001) Cognitive and sensory influence on the perception of complex auditory signals. J Acoust Soc Am 190:2309–2310.Google Scholar
  41. Eddins DA, Frisina RD, Mapes FM, Guimaraes P (2006) Spectral modulation detection as a function of age and degree of hearing loss. Assoc Res Otolaryngol Abstr 29:328.Google Scholar
  42. Freyman RL, Balakrishnan U, Helfer KS (2001) Spatial release from informational masking in speech recognition. J Acoust Soc Am 109:2112–2122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Freyman RL, Balakrishnan U, Helfer KS (2004) Effect of number of masking talkers and auditory priming on informational masking in speech recognition. J Acoust Soc Am 115:2246–2256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gabriel KJ, Koehnke J, Colburn HS (1992) Frequency dependence of binaural performance in listeners with impaired binaural hearing. J Acoust Soc Am 91:336–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gardner MB (1973) Some monaural and binaural facets of median plane localization. J Acoust Soc Am 54:1489–1495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gardner MB, Gardner RS (1973) Problem of localization in the median plane: effect of pinnae cavity occlusion. J Acoust Am Soc 53:400–408.Google Scholar
  47. Gates GA, Cooper JC, Kannel WB, Miller NJ (1990) Hearing in the elderly: the Framingham cohort, 1983–1985. Part I. Basic audiometric test results. Ear Hear 11:247–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gelfand SA, Hoffman S, Waltzman SB, Piper N (1980) Dichotic CV recognition at various interaural temporal onset asynchronies: effect of age. J Acoust Soc Am 68:1258–1261.Google Scholar
  49. Gerber SE, Goldman P (1971) Ear preference for dichotically presented verbal stimuli as a function of report strategies. J Acoust Soc Am 49:1163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Goldberg JM, Brown, B (1969) Response of binaural neurons of dog superior olivary complex to dichotic tonal stimuli: some physiological mechanisms of sound localization. J Neurophysiol 32:613–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gordon-Salant S, Fitzgibbons PJ (1993) Temporal factors and speech recognition performance in young and elderly listeners. J Speech Hear Res 36:1276–1285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gordon-Salant S, Fitzgibbons PJ (1999) Profile of auditory temporal processing in older listeners. J Speech Lang Hear Res 42:300–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Grantham DW (1986) Detection and discrimination of simulated motion of auditory targets in the horizontal plane. J Acoust Soc Am 79:1939–1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Grantham DW (1995) Spatial hearing and related phenomena. In: Moore BCJ (ed) Hearing: Handbook of Perception and Cognition. New York: Academic Press, pp. 297–345.Google Scholar
  55. Grantham DW, Wightman FL (1979) Detectability of a pulsed tone in the presence of a masker with time-varying interaural correlation. J Acoust Soc Am 65:1509–1517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Griffiths TD, Rees A, Witton C, Shakir RA, Henning GB, Green GG (1996) Evidence for a sound movement area in the human cerebral cortex. Nature 383:425–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Grose JH, Poth EA, Peters RW (1994) Masking level differences for tones and speech in elderly listeners with relatively normal audiograms. J Speech Hear Res 37:422–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Grose JH, Hall JW, Buss E (2006) Temporal processing deficits in the pre-senescent auditory system. J Acoust Soc Am 119:2305–2315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Haas H (1951) On the influence of a single echo on the intelligibility of speech. Acustica 1:48–58.Google Scholar
  60. Hafter ER, Carrier SC (1972) Binaural interaction in low-frequency stimuli: the inability to trade time and intensity completely. J Acoust Soc Am 51:1852–1862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hall JW, Tyler RS, Fernandes MA (1984) Factors influencing the masking level difference in cochlear hearing-impaired and normal-hearing listeners. J Speech Hear Res 27:145–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hall JW, Buss E, Grose JH, Dev MB (2004) Developmental effects in the masking-level difference. J Speech Lang Hear Res 47:13–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hall JW, Buss E, Grose JH (2005) Informational masking release in children and adults. J Acoust Soc Am 118:1605–1613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hallgren M, Larsby B, Lyxell B, Arlinger S (2001) Cognitive effects in dichotic speech testing in elderly persons. Ear Hear 22:120–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Halling DC, Humes LE (2000) Factors affecting the recognition of reverberant speech by elderly listeners. J Speech Lang Hear Res 43:414–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Harris JD, Sergeant RL (1971) Monaural/binaural minimum audible angles for a moving sound source. J Speech Hear Res 14:618–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hausler R, Colburn S, Marr E (1983) Sound localization in subjects with impaired hearing. Spatial-discrimination and interaural-discrimination tests. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 400:1–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. He N, Dubno JR, Mills JH (1998) Frequency and intensity discrimination measured in a maximum-likelihood procedure from young and aged normal-hearing subjects. J Acoust Soc Am 103:553–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Helfer KS (1992) Aging and the binaural advantage in reverberation and noise. J Speech Hear Res 35:1394–1401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Helfer KS, Freyman RL (2008) Aging and speech-on-speech masking. Ear Hear 29:87–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Helfer KS, Wilber LA (1990) Hearing loss, aging, and speech perception in reverberation and noise. J Speech Hear Res 33:149–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Henkin Y, Waldman A, Kishon-Rabin L (2007) The benefits of bilateral versus unilateral amplification for the elderly: are two always better than one? J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 18:201–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Henning GB (1974) Detectability of interaural delay in high-frequency complex waveforms. J Acoust Soc Am 55:84–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Herman GE, Warren LR, Wagener JW (1977) Auditory lateralization - age differences in sensitivity to dichotic time and amplitude cues. J Gerontol 32:187–191.Google Scholar
  75. Hirsh IJ (1948) Influence of interaural phase on interaural summation and inhibition. J Acoust Soc Am 20:536–544.Google Scholar
  76. Humes LE, Watson BU, Christensen LA, Cokely CG, Halling DC, Lee L (1994) Factors associated with individual differences in clinical measures of speech recognition among the elderly. J Speech Hear Res 37:465–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Jeffress LA (1948) A place theory of sound localization. J Comp Physiol Psychol 41:35–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Jerger J, Estes R (2002) Asymmetry in event-related potentials to simulated auditory motion in children, young adults, and seniors. J Am Acad Audiol 13:1–13.Google Scholar
  79. Jerger J, Jordan C (1992) Age-related asymmetry on a cued-listening task. Ear Hear 13:272–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Jerger J, Brown D, Smith S (1984) Effect of peripheral hearing loss on the MLD. Arch Otolaryngol 110:290–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Jerger J, Jerger S, Pirozzolo F (1991) Correlational analysis of speech audiometric scores, hearing loss, age, and cognitive abilities in the elderly. Ear Hear 12:103–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Johnstone P, Litovsky RY (2003) Speech intelligibility and spatial release from masking in children and adults for various types of interfering sounds. Assoc Res Otolaryngol Abstr 26:214.Google Scholar
  83. Kidd G, Mason CR, Deliwala PS, Woods WS, Colburn HS (1994) Reducing informational masking by sound segregation, J Acoust Soc Am 95:3475–3480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kim S-H, Frisina RD, Mapes FM, Hickman ED, Frisina DR (2006) Effect of age on binaural speech intelligibility in normal hearing adults. Speech Commun 48:591–597Google Scholar
  85. Kimura D (1961) Cerebral dominance and the perception of verbal stimuli. Can J Psychol 15:166–171.Google Scholar
  86. Kirikae I (1969) Auditory function in advanced age with reference to histological changes in the central auditory system. Int J Audiol 8:221–230.Google Scholar
  87. Klump RG, Eady HR (1956) Some measurements of interaural time difference thresholds. J Acoust Soc Am 28:859–860.Google Scholar
  88. Lee FS, Matthews LJ, Dubno JR, Mills JH (2005) Longitudinal study of pure-tone thresholds in older persons. Ear Hear 26:1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Levitt H, Rabiner LR (1967) Binaural release from masking for speech and gain intelligibility. J Acoust Soc Am 42:601–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Li L, Daneman M, Qi J, Schneider BA (2004) Does the information content of an irrelevant source differentially affect spoken word recognition in younger and older adults? J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 30:1077–1091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Licklider JCR (1948) The influence of interaural phase relations upon the masking of speech by white noise. J Acoust Soc Am 20:150–159.Google Scholar
  92. Lutfi RA, Wang W (1999) Correlational analysis of acoustic cues for the discrimination of auditory motion. J Acoust Soc Am 106:919–928.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Marietta C, Nutt RC, Frisina DR, Eddins DA (2007) The effects of age on the spatial release from informational and energetic masking. Assoc Res Otolaryngol Abstr 30:222.Google Scholar
  94. Matzker VJ, Springborn E (1958) Richtungshoren und lebensalter. Z Laryngol Rhinol Otol Grenzgeb 37:739–745.Google Scholar
  95. Maxon AB, Hochberg I (1982) Development of psychoacoustic behavior: sensitivity and discrimination. Ear Hear 3:301–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. McFadden D, Pasanen EG (1976) Lateralization at high frequencies based on interaural time differences. J Acoust Soc Am 59:634–639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. McFadden D, Pasanen EG (1978) Binaural detection at high frequencies with time-delayed waveforms. J Acoust Soc Am 63:1120–1131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. McFadden D, Loehlin JC, Pasanen EG (1996) Additional findings on heritability and prenatal masculinization of cochlear mechanisms: click-evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hear Res 97:102–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Mehrgardt S, Mellert V (1977) Transformation characteristics of the external human ear. J Acoust Soc Am 61:1567–1576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Moorer JA (1979) About this reverberation business. Comput Music J 3:13–28.Google Scholar
  101. Nabelek AK (1988) Identification of vowels in quiet, noise, and reverberation: relationships with age and hearing loss. J Acoust Soc Am 84:476–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Nabelek AK, Robinson PK (1982) Monaural and binaural speech perception in reverberation for listeners of various ages. J Acoust Soc Am 71:1242–1248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Nilsson M, Soli SD, Sullivan JA (1994) Development of the Hearing in Noise Test for the measurement of speech reception thresholds in quiet and in noise. J Acoust Soc Am 95: 1085–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Noble W, Byrne D, Lepage B (1994) Effects on sound localization of configuration and type of hearing impairment. J Acoust Soc Am 95:992–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Noble W, Byrne D, Ter-Horst K (1997) Auditory localization, detection of spatial separateness, and speech hearing in noise by hearing impaired listeners. J Acoust Soc Am 102:2343–2352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Oldfield S, Parker S (1984) Acuity of sound localization: a topography of auditory space. II. Pinna cues absent. Perception 13:601–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Olsen W, Noffsinger D, Carhart R (1976) Masking-level differences encountered in clinical populations. Audiology 15:287–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Pichora-Fuller MK (1997) Language comprehension in older listeners. J Speech Lang Hear Res 21:125–142.Google Scholar
  109. Pichora-Fuller MK, Schneider BA (1991) Masking level differences in the elderly: a comparison of antiphasic and time-delay dichotic conditions. J Speech Hear Res 34:1410–1422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Rakerd B, Vander Velde TJ, Hartmann WM (1998) Sound localization in the median sagittal plane by listeners with presbyacusis. J Am Acad Audiol 9:466–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Resnick SB, Dubno JR, Hoffnung S, Levitt H (1975) Phoneme errors on a nonsense syllable test. J Acoust Soc Am 58:114.Google Scholar
  112. Roberts RA, Lister JJ (2004) Effects of age and hearing loss on gap detection and the precedence effect: broadband stimuli. J Speech Lang Hear Res 47:965–978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Roffler SK, Butler RA (1968) Factors that influence the localization of sound in the vertical plane. J Acoust Soc Am 43:1255–1259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Ross B, Fujioka T, Tremblay KL, Picton TW (2007) Aging in binaural hearing begins in mid-life: evidence from cortical auditory-evoked responses to changes in interaural phase. J Neurosci 27:11172–11178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Roup CM, Wiley TL, Wilson RH (2006) Dichotic word recognition in young and older adults. J Am Acad Audiol 17:230–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Saberi K, Hafter ER (1997) Experiments on auditory motion discrimination. In: Gilkey RH, Anderson TR (eds) Binaural and Spatial Hearing in Real and Virtual Environments. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 315–327.Google Scholar
  117. Saunders GH, Kates JM (1997) Speech intelligibility enhancement using hearing-aid array processing. J Acoust Soc Am 102:1827–1837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Schneider BA (1997) Psychoacoustics and Aging: Implications for Everyday Listening. J Spch-Lang Audiol 21:111–124.Google Scholar
  119. Schneider BA, Pichora-Fuller MK, Kowalchuk D, Lamb M (1994) Gap detection and the precedence effect in young and old adults. J Acoust Soc Am 95:980–991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Schroeder MA (1962) Natural sounding artificial reverberation. J Audio Eng Soc 10: 219.Google Scholar
  121. Schroeder MA (1970) Digital simulation of sound transmission in reverberant spaces. J Acoust Soc Am 47:424–431.Google Scholar
  122. Smith J (2006) Physical Audio Signal Processing for Virtual Musical Instruments and Digital Audio Effects, August 2006 Edition. Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA), Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Online book at∼jos/pasp06/.Google Scholar
  123. Stevens SS, Newman EB (1936) The localization of actual sources of sound. Am J Psychol 48:297–306.Google Scholar
  124. Strouse A, Ashmead DH, Ohde RN, Grantham DW (1998) Temporal processing in the aging auditory system. J Acoust Soc Am 104:2385–2399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Strutt JW, Lord Rayleigh (1907) On our perception of sound direction. Philos Mag 13: 214–232.Google Scholar
  126. Tadros SE, Frisina ST, Mapes F, Kim S, Frisina DR, Frisina RD (2005) Loss of peripheral right-ear advanatage in age-related hearing loss. Audiol Neurootol 10:44–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. van Rooij JC, Plomp R (1990) Auditive and cognitive factors in speech perception by elderly listeners. II: Multivariate analyses. J Acoust Soc Am 88:2611–2624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Walden BE, Surr RK, Cord MT, Edwards B, Olson L (2000) Comparisons of benefits provided by different hearing aid technologies. J Am Acad Audiol 11:540–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Wallach H, Newman EB, Rosenzweig MR (1949) The precedence effect in sound localization. Am J Psychol LXII:315–336.Google Scholar
  130. Watson CS (1987) Uncertainty, informational masking and the capacity of immediate auditory memory. In: Yost WA, Watson CS (eds) Auditory Processing of Complex Sounds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 267–277.Google Scholar
  131. Webster FA (1951) The influence of interaural phase on masked thresholds: the role of interaural time deviation. J Acoust Soc Am 23:452–462.Google Scholar
  132. Weinrich S (1982) The problem of front-back localization in binaural hearing. Scand Audiol Suppl 15:135–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Wightman FL, Kistler DJ (1992) The dominant role of low-frequency interaural time differences in sound localization. J Acoust Soc Am 91:1648–1661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Wightman FL, Kistler DJ (1993) Sound localization. In: Yost WA, Fay RR, Popper AN (eds) Handbook of Auditory Research: Human Psychophysics. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 155–192.Google Scholar
  135. Wilson RH, Weakley DG. (2005) The 500 Hz masking-level difference and word recognition in multitalker babble for 40- to 89-year-old listeners with symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss. J Am Acad Audiol. 16:367–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Wright D, Hebrank JH, Wilson B (1974) Pinna reflections as cues for localization. J Acoust Soc Am 56:957–962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Yost W, Wightman F, Green D (1971) Lateralization of filtered clicks. J Acoust Soc Am 50:1526–1530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Zurek PM (1993) A note on onset effects in binaural hearing. J Acoust Soc Am 93:1200–1201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Zwicker E, Schorn K (1982) Temporal resolution in hard-of-hearing patients. Audiology 21:474–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Zwislocki J, Feldman RS (1956) Just noticeable differences in dichotic phase. J Acoust Soc Am 28:860–864.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OtolaryngologyUniversity of RochesterRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of OtolaryngologyUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations