Current Status of Treatment of Hepatitis B in Children

  • Deirdre Kelly
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 659)


Viral Hepatitis B is the cause of significant disease worldwide. Acute infection occurs with hepatitis B, but chronic asymptomatic infection leading to chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma is a life long concern.

The natural history of hepatitis B (HBV) is well established in adults, but the long-term outcome for children is unclear. The main mechanism of infection in childhood is perinatal transmission, which can be prevented effectively by vaccination.


Viral Resistance Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Seroconversion Rate Adefovir Dipivoxil Perinatal Transmission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Bortolotti, F., Jara, P., Barbera, C., Gregorio, G.V., Veggente, A., Zancan, L., Hierro, L. et al. (2000). Long term effect of alpha interferon in children with chronic hepatitis B. Gut, 46(5), 715–718.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bortolotti, F., Jara, P., Crivello, C., Hierro, L., Cadrobbi, P., Frauca, E., Camarena, C. et al. (1998). Outcome of chronic hepatitis B in caucasian children during a 20-year observation period. J Hepatol, (29), 184–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boxall, E.H., Sira, J., Ballard, A.L., Davies, P., & Kelly, D.A. (2006). Long term follow up of hepatitis B carrier children treated with interferon and prednisolone. J Med Virol, (78), 888–895.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boxall, E.H., Sira, J., El-Shukri, N., Kelly, D.A. (2004a). Long-term persistence of immunity to hepatitis B after vaccination during infancy in a country where endemicity is low. J Infect Dis, 190(7), 1264–1269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boxall, E.H., Sira, J., Standish, R.A., Davies, P., Sleight, E., Dhillon, A.P. et al. (2004b). Natural history of hepatitis B in perinatally infected carriers. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed, 89(5), 456–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chu, C.M. (2000). Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in adults, emphasis on the occurrence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 15(Suppl), E25–E30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. D’Antiga, L., Aw, M., Atkins, M. et al. (2006). Combined lamivudine/interferon alfa treatment in immune tolerant children perinatally infected with Hepatitis B; a pilot study. J Pediatr, (148), 228–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. European Association for the Study. (2009). EASL clinical practice guidelines: management of hepatitis B. J Hepatol, 50(2), 227–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ghany, M. & Liang, T.J. (2007). Drug targets and molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in chronic Hepatitis B. Gastroenterology, (132), 1574–1585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hadziyannis, S., Tassopoulos, N.C., Heathcote, E.J., Chang, T.T., Kitis, G., Rizzetto, M. et al. Adefovir Dipivoxil 438 Study Group. (2005). Long-term therapy with Adefovir Dipivoxil 438 Study Group. N Engl J Med, (352), 2673–2681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jara, P., & Bortolotti, F. (1999). Interferon-α treatment of chronic hepatitis B in childhood: a consensus advice based on experience in European children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, (29), 163–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jonas, M., Kelly, D., & Mizerski, J. (2002). Clinical trial of lamivudine in children with chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J, (346), 1706–1713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jonas, M.M., Kelly, D., Pollack, H., Mizerski, J., Sorbel, J., Frederick, D. et al. (2008). Safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of adefovir dipivoxil in children and adolescents (age 2 to <18 years) with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology, 47(6), 1863–1871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lai, C.L., Leung, N., Teo, E.K. et al. (2005). A 1-year trial of telbivudine, lamivudine and the combination in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology, (129), 528–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Lau, G.K., Piratvisuth, T., Luo, K.X. et al. (2005). Peginterferon Alfa2a, lamivudine, and the combination for HBeAG-positive chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med, (352), 2682–2695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lavanchy, D. (2004). Hepatitis B virus epidemiology, disease burden, treatment and current and emerging prevention and control measures. J Viral Hepat, (11), 97–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee, W.S., McKiernan, P., & Kelly, D.A. (2005). Etiology, outcome and prognostic indicators of childhood fulminant hepatic failure in the United Kingdom. JPGN, (40), 575–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Lok, A.S. & McMahon, B.J. (2007). Chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology, (45), 507–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Moore, S.W., Millar, A.J., Hadley, G.P., Ionescu, G., Kruger, M., Poole, J. et al. (2004). Hepatocellular carcinoma and liver tumors in South African children: a case for increased prevalence. Cancer, 101(3), 642–649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Perillo, R., Schiff, E., Magill, A., & Murray, A. (1999) In vivo demonstration of sensitivity of YMDD variants to adefovir. Gastroenterol, (116), A1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Petersen, K.M., Bulkow, L.R., McMahon, M.D., Zanis, C., Getty, M., Peters, H., & Parkinson, A.J. (2004). Duration of hepatitis B immunity in low risk children receiving hepatitis B vaccinations from birth. Pediatr Infect Dis J, (23), 650–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rehermann, B. (2003). Immune responses in hepatitis B virus infection. Semin Liver Dis, (23), 21–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sherman, M., Yurdaydin, C., Sollano, J., Liaw, Y.F. et al. (2006). Entecavir for treatment of lamivudine-refractory HbeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology, 130(7), 2039–2049.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sokal, E.M., Kelly, D.A., Mizerski, J., Badia, I.B., Areias, J.A., Schwarz, K.B. et al. (2006). Long term lamivudine therapy for children with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology, 43(2), 225–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Terrault, N.A. (2002). Treatment of recurrent hepatitis B infection in liver transplant recipients. Liver Trans, 8(Suppl 10), S74–S81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. van Bommel, F., Zollner, B., Sarrazin, C. et al. (2006). Tenofovir for patients with lamivudine-resistance hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and high HBV DNA level during adefovir therapy. Hepatology, 44(2), 318–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Liver UnitBirmingham Children’s HospitalBirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations