In H.264/AVC, both transform and quantization units consist of forward and inverse parts. Residuals are transformed into frequency domain coefficients in the forward transform unit and quantized in the forward quantization unit to reduce insignificant data for bit-rate saving. To generate reconstructed pixels for the intra prediction unit and reference frames for the motion estimation unit, quantized coefficients are rescaled in the inverse quantization unit and transformed back to residuals in the inverse transform unit. There are three kinds of transform used in H.264/AVC: 4 ×4 integer discrete cosine transform, 2 ×2 Hadamard transform, and 4 ×4 Hadamard transform. To design an area-efficient architecture is the main design challenge. We will present a VLSI implementation of transform coding in this chapter.
KeywordsDiscrete Cosine Transform Quantization Parameter Nonzero Coefficient Quantization Operation Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform
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