Intra Prediction

  • Youn-Long Steve Lin
  • Chao-Yang Kao
  • Huang-Chih Kuo
  • Jian-Wen Chen


Intra prediction is the first process of H.264/AVC intra encoding. It predicts a macroblock by referring to its neighboring macroblocks to eliminate spatial redundancy. There are 17 prediction modes for a macroblock: nine modes for each of the 16 luma 4 ×4 blocks, four modes for a luma 16 ×16 block, and four modes for each of the two chroma 8 ×8 blocks. Because there exists great similarity among equations of generating prediction pixels across prediction modes, effective hardware resource sharing is the main design consideration. Moreover, there exists a long data-dependency loop among luma 4 ×4 blocks during encoding. Increasing parallelism and skipping some modes are two of the popular methods to design a high-performance architecture for high-end applications. However, to increase throughput will require more hardware area and to skip some modes will degrade video quality. We will present a novel VLSI implementation for intra prediction in this chapter.


Expense Coord 


  1. 1.
    Al A, Rao BP, Kudva S, Babu S, Suman D, Rao A (2004) Quality and complexity comparison of H.264 intra mode with JPEG2000 and JPEG. In: Proceedings of IEEE international conference on image processing, Singapore, October 2004, pp 525–528Google Scholar
  2. 7.
    Cheng C-C, Chang T-S (2005) Fast three step intra prediction algorithm for 4 ×4 blocks in H.264. In: Proceedings of IEEE international symposium on circuits and systems, Kobe, Japan, May 2005, pp 1509–1512Google Scholar
  3. 21.
    Huang Y-W, Hsieh B-Y, Chen T-C, Chen L-G (2005) Analysis, fast algorithm, and VLSI architecture design for H.264/AVC intra frame coder. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 15(3):378–401Google Scholar
  4. 29.
    Ku C-W, Cheng C-C, Yu G-S, Tsai M-C, Chang T-S (2006) A high-definition H.264/AVC intra-frame codec IP for digital video and still camera applications. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 16(8):917–928Google Scholar
  5. 32.
    Kao Y-C, Kuo H-C, Lin Y-T, Hou C-W, Li Y-H, Huang H-T, Lin Y-L (2006) A high-performance VLSI architecture for intra prediction and mode decision in H.264/AVC video encoding. In: Proceedings of IEEE Asia-Pacific conference on circuits and systems, Singapore, December 2006, pp 562–565Google Scholar
  6. 46.
    Li D-W, Ku C-W, Cheng C-C, Lin Y-K, Chang T-S (2007) A 61MHz 72k gates 1,280 ×720 30fps H.264 intra encoder. In: Proceedings of IEEE international conference on acoustics, speech and signal processing, Hawaii, USA, April 2007, pp (II) 801–804Google Scholar
  7. 54.
    Meng B, Au O-C (2003) Fast intra-prediction mode selection for 4A blocks in H.264. In: Proceedings of IEEE international conference on acoustics, speech, and signal processing, Hong Kong, China, April 2003, pp (III) 389–392Google Scholar
  8. 61.
    Suh K, Park S, Cho H (2005) An efficient hardware architecture of intra prediction and TQ/IQIT module for H.264 encoder. Electron Telecommun Res Inst J 27(5):511–524Google Scholar
  9. 78.
    Wang J-C, Wang J-F, Yang J-F, Chen J-T (2007) A fast mode decision algorithm and its VLSI design for H.264/AVC intra-prediction. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 17(10):1414–1422Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Youn-Long Steve Lin
    • 1
  • Chao-Yang Kao
    • 1
  • Huang-Chih Kuo
    • 1
  • Jian-Wen Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. Computer ScienceNational Tsing Hua UniversityHsinChuTaiwan R.O.C.

Personalised recommendations