Since the advent of CMOS technology, an increased number of transistors per die and greater performance have been the primary driving factors for the semiconductor industry and process technology. The ability to integrate more transistors per die allowed chip manufacturers to put more components of a system into a single package and thus reduce not only just the sizes of the electronic devices we use today but also the cost and delay. The intense competition in the semiconductor industry has forced chip manufacturers pursue these goals aggressively. To the credit of the semiconductor industry, these goals (more transistors per die and greater performance) have been growing at an exponential rate, following Moore’s law. However, in the process, the power dissipation of the Integrated Circuit (IC) has been growing at an alarming rate as well. In recent times, the excessive power consumption of contemporary circuits has become a dominant design concern . In fact, the issue of power dissipation is one of the main concerns that has hampered the further scaling of transistors. A Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) chip consists of many energy storage elements, mainly capacitors, some that are required for computation (MOSFET device capacitances) and some that are a hindrance to circuit operation (parasitic capacitances). These capacitors are continually charged and discharged through resistive elements during circuit operation, resulting in energy dissipation in the form of heat. The amount of heat dissipated puts a restriction on the computational performance of the circuit, or the number of times the transistors in the circuit can switch for a given power budget. One could argue that the shrinking of devices has reduced the amount of parasitic capacitance and this alleviates power dissipation problems. However, the increase in the number of devices due to the increase in device density has more than compensated for the decrease in the parasitic capacitance of a single device.
KeywordsPower Dissipation Parasitic Capacitance Very Large Scale Integrate Leakage Power Gate Leakage
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