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Imaging of Nephrolithiasis and Urinary Tract Calculi in Children

  • Lynn Ansley Fordham
  • Richard W. Sutherland
  • Debbie S. Gipson
Chapter

Key Points

■ The clinical presentation of pediatric nephrolithiasis and urinary tract calculi can be non-specific (moderate evidence).

■ A single abdominal radiograph (“KUB”) is recommended as the initial screening test (moderate evidence).

■ The Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) is no longer used for evaluating children for renal stones but has a limited role after ureteral surgery (moderate evidence).

■ Ultrasound is the most frequently used imaging test for young children with suspected stones but has a wide range of sensitivity and specificity because of limitations inherent in the modality and because it is user dependent (moderate evidence).

■ CT is highly sensitive for the detection of nephrolithiasis and urinary tract calculi but incurs added cost and ionizing radiation (moderate evidence).

■ In older and/or larger children, CT is the imaging modality of choice to evaluate for nephrolithiasis and urinary tract calculi. The ability to localize renal, ureteral, and bladder calculi and the inherent high spatial resolution allows exact anatomic detail that may be helpful for surgical planning (moderate evidence).

■ MR is not currently recommended for evaluation of renal stones but shows promise for imaging in obstruction (limited evidence).

Keywords

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Ureteral Stone Renal Calculus Moderate Evidence Residual Stone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lynn Ansley Fordham
    • 1
  • Richard W. Sutherland
    • 2
  • Debbie S. Gipson
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology and HypertensionUniversity of North Carolina School of Medicine, North Carolina Children’s HospitalChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Department of Surgery, Division of UrologyUniversity of North Carolina Children’s HospitalChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Division of Nephrology and HypertensionUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

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