Advertisement

Cognitive and Social Processes in Psychosis: Recent Developments

  • Daniel Freeman
Chapter

Abstract

These two personal accounts contain key aspects of paranoia: the individuals are making judgements about other people; the decision-making is influenced by fear, worry, and unusual ‘feelings’; and danger is anticipated. This is consistent with an emerging body of psychological research that implicates – in the context of the social world – reasoning processes, negative affect, and anomalous internal experiences in the occurrence of delusions. In this chapter the advances in the cognitive and social understanding of psychosis will be illustrated with reference to the clinically important experience of persecutory delusions, where arguably the progress has been most rapid. The initial application of this theoretical knowledge to clinical practice via an interventionist causal model approach will be described.

Keywords

Virtual Reality Psychotic Experience Worry Intervention Persecutive Delusion Paranoid Thought 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgment

The author is supported by a Wellcome Trust Fellowship.

References

  1. Bassett, M., Sperlinger, D., & Freeman, D. (2009). Fear of madness and persecutory delusions. Psychosis, 1, 39–50.Google Scholar
  2. Bell, V., Halligan, P.W., & Ellis, H.D. (2006). The Cardiff Anomalous Perceptions Scale (CAPS). Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32, 366–377.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bentall, R. P., Corcoran, R., Howard, R., Blackwood, N., & Kinderman, P. (2001). Persecutory delusions: A review and theoretical interpretation. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 1143–1192.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bentall, R. P., Kinderman, P., & Moutoussis, M. (2008). The role of self-esteem in paranoid delusions: the psychology, neurophysiology, and development of persecutory beliefs. In D. Freeman, R. Bentall & P. Garety (Eds.), Persecutory delusions (pp. 143–173). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bentall, R. P., Rowse, G., Kinderman, P., Blackwood, N., Howard, R., Moore, R., et al. (2008). Paranoid delusions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and depression: the transdiagnostic role of expectations of negative events and negative self-esteem. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 196, 375–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bentall, R. P., Rowse, G., Shryane, N. M., Kinderman, P., Haward, R., Blackwood, N., Moore, R., Corcoran, R. (2009). The cognitive and affective structure of paranoid delusions: A transdiagnostic investigation of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(3), 236–247.Google Scholar
  7. Borkovec, T. D., Ray W. J., & Stober, J. (1998). Worry: a cognitive phenomenon intimately linked to affective, physiological, and interpersonal behavioural processes. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22, 561–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Broome, M. R., Johns, L. C., Valli, I., Woolley, J. B., Tabraham, P., Brett, C., et al. (2007). Delusion formation and reasoning biases in those at clinical high risk for psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, s38–s42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brüne, M. (2005). “Theory of Mind” in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 31, 21–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bunney, W. E., Hetrick, W. P., Bunney, B. G., Patterson, J. V., Jin, Y., Potkin, S. G., et al. (1999). Structured interview for assessing perceptual anomalies (SIAPA). Schizophrenia Bulletin, 25, 577–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Butler, P. D., & Javitt, D. C. (2005). Early-stage visual processing deficits in schizophrenia. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18, 151–157.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chapman, L. J., & Chapman, J. P. (1980). Scales for rating psychotic and psychotic-like experiences as continua. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 6, 476–489.Google Scholar
  13. Chapman, L. J., Chapman, J. P., Kwapil, T. R., Eckbald, M., & Zinser, M. C. (1994). Putatively psychosis-prone subjects 10 years later. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 171–183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Claridge, G. (1997). Theoretical background and issues. In G. Claridge (Eds.), Schizotypy: Implications for illness and health (pp. 3–18). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Combs, D. R., Penn, D. L., Wicher, M., & Waldheter, E. (2007). The Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ): A new measure for evaluating attributional biases in paranoia. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 12, 128–143.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Docherty, J. P., Van Kammen, D. P., Siris, S. G., & Marder, S. R. (1978). Stages of onset of schizophrenic psychosis.American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 420–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dugas, M. J., & Ladouceur, R. (1998). Analysis and treatment of generalised anxiety disorder: A preliminary test of a conceptual model. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 215–226.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ellett, L., Freeman, D., & Garety, P. A. (2008). The psychological effect of an urban environment on individuals with persecutory delusions: The Camberwell walk study. Schizophrenia Research, 99, 77–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Eysenck, M. W., & Van Berkum, J. (1992). Trait anxiety, defensiveness, and the structure of worry. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 1285–1290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Foster, C., Startup, H., Potts, L., & Freeman, D. (2009). A randomised controlled trial of a worry intervention for individuals with persistent persecutory delusions. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, in press.Google Scholar
  21. Fowler, D., Freeman, D., Smith, B., Kuipers, E., Bebbington, P., Bashforth, H., et al. (2006). The Brief Core Schema Scales (BCSS): Psychometric properties and associations with paranoia and grandiosity in non-clinical and psychosis samples. Psychological Medicine, 36, 749–759.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Freeman, D. (2008a). The assessment of persecutory ideation. In D. Freeman, R. Bentall, & P. Garety (Eds.), Persecutory delusions (pp 23–52). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Freeman, D. (2008b). Studying and treating schizophrenia using virtual reality (vr): A new paradigm. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 605–610.Google Scholar
  24. Freeman, D. (2007). Suspicious minds: The psychology of persecutory delusions. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 425–457.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Freeman, D., Dunn, G., Garety, P.A., Bebbington, P., Slater, M., Kuipers, E., et al. (2005). The psychology of persecutory ideation I: A questionnaire study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193, 302–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Freeman, D., & Fowler, D. (2009). Routes to psychotic symptoms: Trauma, anxiety and psychosis-like experiences. Psychiatry Research, 169(2), 107–112.Google Scholar
  27. Freeman, D., & Freeman, J. (2008). Paranoia: The 21st century fear. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Freeman, D., Freeman, J., & Garety, P. (2006). Overcoming paranoid and suspicious thoughts. London: Robinson.Google Scholar
  29. Freeman, D., & Garety, P.A. (1999). Worry, worry processes and dimensions of delusions: An exploratory investigation of a role for anxiety processes in the maintenance of delusional distress. Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy, 27, 47–62.Google Scholar
  30. Freeman, D., & Garety, P.A. (2000). Comments on the content of persecutory delusions: Does the definition need clarification? British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 407–414.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Freeman, D., Garety, P. A., Bebbington, P., Slater, M., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., et al. (2005). The psychology of persecutory ideation II: A virtual reality experimental study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193, 309–315.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Freeman, D., Garety, P. A., Bebbington, P. E., Smith, B., Rollinson, R., Fowler, D., et al. (2005). Psychological investigation of the structure of paranoia in a non-clinical population. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 427–435.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Freeman, D., Garety, P. A., Fowler, D., Kuipers, E., Bebbington, P., Dunn, G. (2004). Why do people with delusions fail to choose more realistic explanations for their experiences? An empirical investigation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 671–680.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Freeman, D., Garety, P. A., & Kuipers, E. (2001). Persecutory delusions: developing the understanding of belief maintenance and emotional distress. Psychological Medicine, 31, 1293–1306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Freeman, D., Garety, P. A., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., & Bebbington, P.E. (2002). A cognitive model of persecutory delusions. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 331–347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Freeman, D., Garety, P. A., McGuire, P., & Kuipers, E., (2005). Developing a theoretical understanding of therapy techniques: reasoning, therapy and symptoms. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 241–254CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Freeman, D., Gittins, M., Pugh, K., Antley, A., Slater, M., & Dunn, G. (2008). What makes one person paranoid and another person anxious? The differential prediction of social anxiety and persecutory ideation in an experimental situation. Psychological Medicine, 38, 1121–1132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Freeman, D., Pugh, K., Antley, A., Slater, M., Bebbington, P., Gittins, M., et al. (2008). A virtual reality study of paranoid thinking in the general population. British Journal of Psychiatry, 192, 258–263.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Freeman, D., Pugh, K., & Garety, P. (2008). Jumping to conclusions and paranoid ideation in the general population. Schizophrenia Research, 102, 254–260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Freeman, D., Pugh, K., Green, C., Valmaggia, L., Dunn, G., & Garety, P. (2007). A measure of state persecutory ideation for experimental studies. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195, 781–784.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Freeman, D., Pugh, K., Vorontsova, N., Antley, A., & Slater, M. (2009). Establishing the continuum of delusional beliefs. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, in press.Google Scholar
  42. Freeman, D., Pugh, K., Vorontsova, N., & Southgate, L. (2009). Insomnia and paranoia. Schizophrenia Research, 108(1–3), 280–284.Google Scholar
  43. Freeman, D., Slater, M., Bebbington, P.E., Garety, P.A., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., et al. (2003). Can virtual reality be used to investigate persecutory ideation? The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191, 509–514.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Frith, C. D. (1992). The cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia. Hove: LEA.Google Scholar
  45. Frith, C. D. (2004). Schizophrenia and theory of mind. Psychological Medicine, 34, 385–389.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Garety, P. A. (1985). Delusions: Problems in definition and measurement.British Journal of Medical Psychology, 58, 25–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Garety, P. A., Everitt, B. S., & Hemsley, D. R. (1988). The characteristics of delusions. European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 237, 112–114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Garety, P. A., & Freeman, D. (1999). Cognitive approaches to delusions: a critical review of theories and evidence. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 113–154.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Garety, P.A., Freeman, D., Jolley, S., Dunn, G., Bebbington, P.E., Fowler, D., et al. (2005). Reasoning, emotions and delusional conviction in psychosis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 373–384.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Glaser, J. P., van Os, J., Portegijs, P. J. M., & Myin-Germeys, I. (2006). Childhood trauma and emotional reactivity to daily life stress in adult frequent attenders of the General Practitioner. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 61, 229–236.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gracie, A., Freeman, D., Green, S., Garety, P. A., Kuipers, E., Hardy, A., et al. (2007). The association between traumatic experience, paranoia and hallucinations: A test of the predictions of psychological models. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 116, 280–289.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Greig, T. C., Bryson, G. J., & Bell, M. D. (2004). Theory of mind performance in schizophrenia. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 12–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Guillem, F., Pampoulova, T., Stip, E., Lalonde, P., & Todorov, C. (2005). The relationships between symptom dimensions and dysphoria in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 75, 83–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Harrington, L., Siegert, R. J., & McClure, J. (2005). Theory of mind in schizophrenia. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 10, 249–286.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Harrow, M., Jobe, T. M., & Astrachan-Fletcher, E. B. (2008). Prognosis of persecutory delusions in schizophrenia: a 20-year longitudinal study. In D. Freeman, R. Bentall, & P. Garety (Eds.), Persecutory delusions (pp. 73–90). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Harrow, M., Rattenbury, F., & Stoll, F. (1988). Schizophrenic delusions: an analysis of their persistence, of related premorbid ideas, and of three major dimensions. In T. F. Oltmanns & B. A. Maher (Eds.), Delusional beliefs (pp. 184–211). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  57. Henquet, C., Di Forti, M., Murray, R. M., & van Os, J. (2008). The role of cannabis in inducing paranoia and psychosis. In D. Freeman, R. Bentall, & P. Garety (Eds.), Persecutory delusions (pp. 267–280). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Hemsley, D. R. (1994). Perceptual and cognitive abnormalities as the bases for schizophrenic symptoms. In A. S. David & J. C. Cutting (Eds.), The neuropsychology of schizophrenia (pp. 97–116). Hove: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  59. Janssen, I., Krabbendam, L., Bak, M., Hanssen, M., Vollebergh, W, de Graaf, R., et al. (2004). Childhood abuse as a risk factor for psychotic experiences. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 109, 38–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Janssen, I., Versmissen, D., a Campo, J., Myin-germeys, I., van Os, J., & Krabbendam, L. (2006). Attribution style and psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 36, 771–778.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Johns, L. C., Cannon, M., Singleton, N., Murray, R. M., Farrell, M., Brugha, T., et al. (2004). The prevalence and correlates of self-reported psychotic symptoms in the British population. British Journal of Psychiatry, 185, 298–305.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kapur, S. (2003). Psychosis as a state of aberrant salience: A framework linking biology, phenomenology, and pharmacology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 13–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kapur, S., Mizrahi, R., & Li, M. (2005). From dopamine to salience to psychosis – linking biology, pharmacology and phenomenology of psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 79, 59-68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kendler, K. S., Glazer, W. M., & Morgenstern, H. (1983). Dimensions of delusional experience. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 466–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kendler, K. S., Campbell, J. (2009). Interventionist causal models in psychiatry: repositioning the mind-body problem. Psychological Medicine, 39(6), 881–887.Google Scholar
  66. Kirkbride, J. B., Fearon, P., Morgan, C., Dazzan, P., Morgan, K., Tarrant, J., et al. (2006). Heterogeneity in incidence rates of schizophrenia and other psychotic syndromes. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 250–258.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Krabbendam, L., Janssen, I., Bijl, R. V., Vollebergh, W. A. M., & van Os, J. (2002). Neuroticism and low self-esteem as risk factors for psychosis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 37, 1–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Langdon, R., Ward, P. B., & Coltheart, M. (in press). Reasoning anomalies associated with delusions in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin.Google Scholar
  69. Larkin, W., & Morrison, A. (Eds.). (2006). Trauma and psychosis. Hove, East Sussex: Routledge.Google Scholar
  70. Lemert, E. M. (1962). Paranoia and the dynamics of exclusion. Sociometry, 25, 2–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lyon, H. M., Kaney, S., & Bentall, R. P. (1994). The defensive function of persecutory delusions: evidence from attribution tasks. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 637–646.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Maher, B. A. (1974). Delusional thinking and perceptual disorder. Journal of Individual Psychology, 30, 98–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Marcelis, M., Navarro-Mateu, F., Murray, R., Selten, J. P., & van Os, J. (1998). Urbanisation and psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 28, 871–879.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Maric, N., Myin-Germeys, I., Delespaul, P., de Graaf, R., Vollebergh, W., Van Os, J. (2004). Is our concept of schizophrenia influenced by Berkson’s bias? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39(8), 600–605.Google Scholar
  75. Martin, J. A., & Penn, D. L. (2001). Brief report: social cognition and subclinical paranoid ideation. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 261–265.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Martin, J. A., & Penn, D. L. (2002). Attributional style in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 28, 131–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. McGhie, A., & Chapman, J. (1961). Disorders of attention and perception in early schizophrenia. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 34, 103–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. McGrath, J. J. (2007). The surprisingly rich contours of schizophrenia epidemiology. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 14–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Mizrahi, R., Kiang, M., Mamo, D. C., Arenovich, T., Bagby, R. M., Zipursky, R. B., et al. (2006). The selective effect of antipsychotics on the different dimensions of the experience of psychosis in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Schizophrenia Research, 88, 111–118.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Moritz, S., Woodward, T., & Lambert, M. (2007). Under what circumstances do patients with schizophrenia jump to conclusions? A liberal acceptance account. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46, 12–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Morrison, A. P., & Wells, A. (2007). Relationships between worry, psychotic experiences and emotional distress in patients with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses and comparisons with anxious and non-patient groups. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1593–1600.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Myin-Germeys, I., Krabbendam, L., & van Os, J. (2003). Continuity of psychotic symptoms in the community. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 16, 443–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Myin-Germeys, I., & van Os, J. (2007). Stress-reactivity in psychosis: evidence for an affective pathway to psychosis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 409–424.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Norman, R. M., & Malla, A. K. (1994). Correlations over time between dysphoric mood and symptomatology in schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 35, 34–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Oltmanns, T. F. (1988). Approaches to the definition and study of delusions. In T. F. Oltmanns & B. A. Maher (Eds.), Delusional beliefs (pp. 3–12). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  86. Peralta, V., & Cuesta, M.J. (1998). Factor structure and clinical validity of competing models of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 44, 107–114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Poulton, R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Cannon, M., Murray, R., & Harrington, H. (2000). Children’s self-reported psychotic symptoms and adult schizophreniform disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 1053–1058.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Sanchez-Vives, M. V., & Slater, M. (2005). From presence to consciousness through Virtual Reality. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 332–339.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Sarfati, Y., Hardy-Baylé, M., Besche, C., & Widlöcher, D. (1997). Attribution of intentions to others in people with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 25, 199–209.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Scott, J., Chant, D., Andrews, G., Martin, G., & McGrath, J. (2007). Association between trauma exposure and delusional experiences in a large community-based sample. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 339–343.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Smith, B., Fowler, D., Freeman, D., Bebbington, P., Bashforth, H., Garety, P., et al. (2006). Emotion and psychosis: direct links between schematic beliefs, emotion and delusions and hallucinations. Schizophrenia Research, 86, 181–188.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Startup, H., Freeman, D., & Garety, P. A. (2007). Persecutory delusions and catastrophic worry in psychosis: developing the understanding of delusion distress and persistence. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 523–537.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Startup, H., Freeman, D., & Garety, P. (2008). Jumping to conclusions and persecutory delusions. European Psychiatry, 23, 457–459.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Strauss, J. S. (1969). Hallucinations and delusions as points on continua function. Archives of General Psychiatry, 20, 581–586.Google Scholar
  95. Sundquist, K., Frank, G., & Sundquist, J. (2004). Follow-up study of 4.4 million women and men in Sweden. British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 293–298.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Thewissen, V., Bentall, R. P., Lecomte, T., van Os, J., & Myin-Germeys, I. (2008). Fluctuations in self-esteem and paranoia in the context of daily life. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 143–153.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Thewissen, V., Myin-Germeys, I., Bentall, R., de Graaf, R., Vollebergh, W., & van Os, J. (2005). Hearing impairment and psychosis revisited. Schizophrenia Research, 76, 99–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Trower, P., Birchwood, M., Meaden, A., Byrne, S., Nelson, A., & Ross, K. (2004). Cognitive therapy for command hallucinations. British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 312-320.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Uhlhaas, P. J., & Mishara, A. L. (2007). Perceptual anomalies in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33, 142–156.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Van Dael, F., Versmissen, D., Janssen, I., Myin-Germeys, I., van Os, J., & Krabbendam, L. (2006). Data gathering: biased in psychosis? Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32, 341–351.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Van Os, J. (2004). Does the urban environment cause psychosis? British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 287–288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Van Os, J., Hanssen, M., Bijl, R. V., & Ravelli, A. (2000). Strauss (1969) revisited: A psychosis continuum in the general population. Schizophrenia Research, 45, 11-20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Van Os, J., Linscott, R. J., Myin-Germeys, I., Delespaul, P., & Krabbendam, L. (2009). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychosis continuum: evidence for a psychosis proneness–persistence–impairment model of psychotic disorder. Psychological Medicine, 39(2), 179–195.Google Scholar
  104. Van Winkel, R., Stefanis, N. C., & Myin-Germeys, I. (2008). Psychosocial stress and psychosis. A review of the neurobiological mechanisms and the evidence for gene-stress interaction. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 1095–1105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Vázquez-Barquero, J. L., Lastra, I., Nuñez, M. J. C., Castanedo, S. H., & Dunn, G. (1996). Patterns of positive and negative symptoms in first episode schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 693–701.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Vermissen, D., Janssen, I., Myin-Germeys, I., Mengelers, R., à Campo, J., van Os, J., et al. (2008). Evidence for a relationship between mentalising deficits and paranoia over the psychosis continuum. Schizophrenia Research, 99, 103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wells, A. (1994). A multi-dimensional measure of worry: development and preliminary validation of the anxious thoughts inventory. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 6, 289–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Woodward, J. (2003). Making things happen: A theory of causal explanation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyInstitute of Psychiatry, King’s College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations