Advertisement

Narcolepsy pp 47-53 | Cite as

Epidemiology of Narcolepsy

  • Lauren Hale
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of the epidemiology of narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness with episodic weakness often triggered by strong emotions. Due to difficulty in diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and delayed diagnosis, measurement of prevalence rates in population-based samples is complicated. However, the most intensively screened population-based studies suggest that prevalence rates for narcolepsy with cataplexy range between 25 per 100,000 and 50 per 100,000 people. Some studies show that men are more likely than women to have narcolepsy, but it is hard to tell with such a rare disorder and frequent misdiagnosis. Other correlates of narcolepsy include low hypocretin levels, presence of the HLA DQB1 602 gene, obesity, and other sleep disorders. Symptoms of narcolepsy commonly begin in the second decade of life and last a lifetime. Treatment of the disorder usually requires medications and behavioral modification.

Keywords

Cataplexy Epidemiology Excessive daytime sleepiness Narcolepsy 

References

  1. 1.
    Longstreth WT, Jr., Koepsell TD, Ton TG, Hendrickson AF, van Belle G. The epidemiology of narcolepsy. Sleep 2007;30(1):13–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ohayon MM, Priest RG, Zulley J, Smirne S, Paiva T. Prevalence of narcolepsy symptomatology and diagnosis in the European general population. Neurology 2002;58(12):1826–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Overeem S, Mignot E, van Dijk JG, Lammers GJ. Narcolepsy: clinical features, new pathophysiologic insights, and future perspectives. J Clin Neurophysiol 2001;18(2):78–105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Broughton R, Dunham W, Weisskopf M, Rivers M. Night sleep does not predict day sleep in narcolepsy. Electro­encephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1994;91(1):67–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sturzenegger C, Bassetti CL. The clinical spectrum of narcolepsy with cataplexy: a reappraisal. J Sleep Res 2004;13(4):395–406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Silber MH, Krahn LE, Olson EJ, Pankratz VS. The epidemiology of narcolepsy in Olmsted County, Minnesota: a population-based study. Sleep 2002;25(2):197–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Thorpy MJ. Cataplexy associated with narcolepsy: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management. CNS drugs 2006;20(1):43–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Krahn LE, Lymp JF, Moore WR, Slocumb N, Silber MH. Characterizing the emotions that trigger cataplexy. J Neuro­psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2005;17(1):45–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wise MS. Narcolepsy and other disorders of excessive sleepiness. Med Clin North Am 2004;88(3):597–610, vii–viii.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thorpy MJ. Narcolepsy. Continuum 2007;13(3):101–14.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gelb M, Guilleminault C, Kraemer H, et al. Stability of cataplexy over several months – information for the design of therapeutic trials. Sleep 1994;17(3):265–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Broughton WA, Broughton RJ. Psychosocial impact of narcolepsy. Sleep 1994;17(8 Suppl):S45–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Morrish E, King MA, Smith IE, Shneerson JM. Factors associated with a delay in the diagnosis of narcolepsy. Sleep Med 2004;5(1):37–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wing YK, Chen L, Fong SY, et al. Narcolepsy in Southern Chinese patients: clinical characteristics, HLA typing and seasonality of birth. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008;79(11):1262–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Littner MR, Kushida C, Wise M, et al. Practice parameters for clinical use of the multiple sleep latency test and the maintenance of wakefulness test. Sleep 2005;28(1):113–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Arand D, Bonnet M, Hurwitz T, Mitler M, Rosa R, Sangal RB. The clinical use of the MSLT and MWT. Sleep 2005;28(1):123–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mignot E, Lin L, Rogers W, et al. Complex HLA-DR and -DQ interactions confer risk of narcolepsy-cataplexy in three ethnic groups. Am J Hum Genet 2001;68(3):686–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mignot E. Genetic and familial aspects of narcolepsy. Neurology 1998;50(2 Suppl 1):S16–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chemelli RM, Willie JT, Sinton CM, et al. Narcolepsy in orexin knockout mice: molecular genetics of sleep regulation. Cell 1999;98(4):437–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peyron C, Faraco J, Rogers W, et al. A mutation in a case of early onset narcolepsy and a generalized absence of hypocretin peptides in human narcoleptic brains. Nat Med 2000;6(9):991–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Buskova J, Vaneckova M, Sonka K, Seidl Z, Nevsimalova S. Reduced hypothalamic gray matter in narcolepsy with cataplexy. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2006;27(6):769–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Silber MH, Rye DB. Solving the mysteries of narcolepsy: the hypocretin story. Neurology 2001;56(12):1616–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Seneviratne U, Puvanendran K. Narcolepsy in Singapore: is it an elusive disease? Ann Acad Med Singapore 2005;34(1):90–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Breslau N, Roth T, Rosenthal L, Andreski P. Sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders: a longitudinal epidemiological study of young adults. Biol Psychiatry 1996;39(6):411–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dauvilliers Y, Montplaisir J, Molinari N, et al. Age at onset of narcolepsy in two large populations of patients in France and Quebec. Neurology 2001;57(11):2029–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hood BM, Harbord MG. Paediatric narcolepsy: complexities of diagnosis. J Paediatr Child Health 2002;38(6):618–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Peterson PC, Husain AM. Pediatric narcolepsy. Brain Dev 2008;30(10):609–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kothare SV, Kaleyias J. Narcolepsy and other hypersomnias in children. Curr Opin Pediatr 2008;20(6):666–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chakravorty SS, Rye DB. Narcolepsy in the older adult: epidemiology, diagnosis and management. Drugs Aging 2003;20(5):361–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nishino S, Kanbayashi T. Symptomatic narcolepsy, cataplexy and hypersomnia, and their implications in the hypotha­lamic hypocretin/orexin system. Sleep Med Rev 2005;9(4):269–310.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mignot E, Lin L, Finn L, et al. Correlates of sleep-onset REM periods during the Multiple Sleep Latency Test in community adults. Brain 2006;129(Pt 6):1609–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wing YK, Li RH, Lam CW, Ho CK, Fong SY, Leung T. The prevalence of narcolepsy among Chinese in Hong Kong. Ann Neurol 2002;51(5):578–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dahmen N, Becht J, Engel A, Thommes M, Tonn P. Prevalence of eating disorders and eating attacks in narcolepsy. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2008;4(1):257–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Muller HL, Muller-Stover S, Gebhardt U, Kolb R, Sorensen N, Handwerker G. Secondary narcolepsy may be a causative factor of increased daytime sleepiness in obese childhood craniopharyngioma patients. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2006;19 Suppl 1:423–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Daniels E, King MA, Smith IE, Shneerson JM. Health-related quality of life in narcolepsy. J Sleep Res 2001;10(1):75–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Aldrich MS. Automobile accidents in patients with sleep disorders. Sleep 1989;12(6):487–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Broughton R, Ghanem Q, Hishikawa Y, Sugita Y, Nevsimalova S, Roth B. Life effects of narcolepsy in 180 patients from North America, Asia and Europe compared to matched controls. Can J Neurol Sci 1981;8(4):299–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dahmen N, Kasten M, Mittag K, Muller MJ. Narcoleptic and schizophrenic hallucinations. Implications for differential diagnosis and pathophysiology. Eur J Health Econ 2002;3 Suppl 2:S94–8.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kishi Y, Konishi S, Koizumi S, Kudo Y, Kurosawa H, Kathol RG. Schizophrenia and narcolepsy: a review with a case report. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2004;58(2):117–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Walterfang M, Upjohn E, Velakoulis D. Is schizophrenia associated with narcolepsy? Cogn Behav Neurol 2005;18(2):113–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Douglass AB. Narcolepsy: differential diagnosis or etiology in some cases of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia? CNS Spectr 2003;8(2):120–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Arnulf I. Excessive daytime sleepiness in parkinsonism. Sleep Med Rev 2005;9(3):185–200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ohayon MM, Ferini-Strambi L, Plazzi G, Smirne S, Castronovo V. Frequency of narcolepsy symptoms and other sleep disorders in narcoleptic patients and their first-degree relatives. J Sleep Res 2005;14(4):437–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Peled N, Pillar G, Peled R, Lavie P. [Narcolepsy]. Harefuah 1997;133(1–2):43–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lavie P, Peled R. Narcolepsy is a rare disease in Israel. Sleep 1987;10(6):608–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hungs M, Fan J, Lin L, Lin X, Maki RA, Mignot E. Identification and functional analysis of mutations in the hypocretin (orexin) genes of narcoleptic canines. Genome Res 2001;11(4):531–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lin L, Faraco J, Li R, et al. The sleep disorder canine narcolepsy is caused by a mutation in the hypocretin (orexin) receptor 2 gene. Cell 1999;98(3):365–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dauvilliers Y, Carlander B, Molinari N, et al. Month of birth as a risk factor for narcolepsy. Sleep 2003;26(6):663–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zeman A, Britton T, Douglas N, et al. Narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness. BMJ 2004;329(7468):724–8.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Black J, Guilleminault C. Medications for the treatment of narcolepsy. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 2001;6(2):239–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Randomized trial of modafinil as a treatment for the excessive daytime somnolence of narcolepsy: US Modafinil in Narcolepsy Multicenter Study Group. Neurology 2000;54(5):1166–75.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial comparing the effects of three doses of orally administered sodium oxybate with placebo for the treatment of narcolepsy. Sleep 2002;25(1):42–9.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Preventive MedicineStony Brook UniversityStony BrookUSA

Personalised recommendations