In Vitro Techniques to Study Drug–Drug Interactions of Drug Metabolism: Cytochrome P450

  • J. Brian Houston
  • Aleksandra Galetin


Approaches are discussed for the generation and use of in vitro data on metabolic reversible inhibition, time-dependent inhibition and induction to make predictions of in vivo drug–drug interactions. The in vitro experimental conduct, choice of probe substrates appropriate for individual P450 enzymes and the importance of nonspecific binding within in vitro systems are discussed. In addition to the inhibitor/inducer properties, the importance of enzyme turnover and the victim drug properties (e.g. parallel elimination pathways and gut enzymes) for quantitative prediction via either of three interaction mechanisms are discussed. Contribution of multiple inhibitors (or metabolites) and/or consequences of a multiple inhibition mechanisms are addressed, as well as mechanisms by which false negatives and false positives may result. Finally, perspectives on future application and improvements of these prediction strategies are outlined.


Human Liver Microsome Grapefruit Juice Reversible Inhibition Probe Substrate Tienilic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK
  2. 2.School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK

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