Data Envelopment Analysis
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Analysis of performance has economic production theory as its foundation. Firms employ inputs to produce output typically with an incentive to maximize profits. Firms that are technically inefficient could increase outputs and revenue with the same inputs or could decrease inputs and cost with the same outputs. Farrell (1957) provided a decomposition of inefficiency into technical and allocative parts. From an input-oriented perspective, firms that are not operating on the isoquant associated with observed production are technically inefficient. Farrell provided a comprehensive measure of technical efficiency as the equiproportional reduction of all inputs holding output at current levels. Allocative efficiency is then measured relative to the cost minimizing mix of inputs given observed input prices.