The neoplasms in this category all produce chondroid matrix, often containing “arcs and rings” of calcifications that can be seen on radiographs and CT. The benign cartilage tumors are typically asymptomatic and represent some of the most commonly encountered incidental bone lesions, with osteochondroma being the most common benign lesion of bone. Osteochondromas demonstrate contiguity of the medullary cavity and cortex with the host bone and pedunculated osteochondromas typically point away from the joint. Enchondromas are very common and are often found in the metaphysis of long bones, hands, and feet. Both enchondromas and osteochondromas can transform into chondrosarcoma and it is important to be familiar with features that suggest malignant transformation. Periosteal chondromas are cartilaginous lesions that arise from the cortical surface and can be difficult to distinguish from periosteal chondrosarcoma or surface osteosarcomas. The smaller size of the periosteal chondroma versus its larger malignant mimickers can be helpful in making the distinction. Chondroblastomas typically occur in skeletally immature patients, arise in the epiphysis, and can have a varied appearance depending on aggressiveness of the lesion. Chondromyxoid fibromas have the least specific imaging features among the benign chondroid lesions. They often do not demonstrate chondroid matrix on imaging, making it difficult to narrow the differential diagnosis. Fortunately, chondromyxoid fibromas are quite rare.
KeywordsAttenuation Sarcoma Osteoarthritis Myeloma Osteosarcoma
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