Advertisement

Chemokines as Neuromodulators: Regulation of Glutamatergic Transmission by CXCR4-Mediated Glutamate Release From Astrocytes

  • Corrado Calì
  • Julie Marchaland
  • Osvaldo Mirante
  • Paola Bezzi
Chapter

Abstract

Chemokines and their receptors are expressed both, in the developing humans and in the adult central nervous system (CNS). Numbers of papers showed that the CXCL12 and CXCR4 receptor are differentially expressed; CXCL12 is highly expressed in glial cells (mostly on astrocytes) and CXCR4 in both glial (astrocytes and microglia) and neuronal cells. The pattern of distribution supports the idea that the CXCL12/CXCR4 system is involved in the fast bidirectional communication system between astrocytes and neurons. Infact, local application of CXCL12 in cultured and in situ astrocytes induces calcium-dependent glutamate release through a direct activation of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) CXCR4. The chemokine-mediated glutamate release process in astrocytes seems to involve a long chain of intracellular and extracellular events related to the release of two chemical mediators, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and prostaglandins (PGs). The mechanisms of glutamate release from astrocytes have been extensively studied during the last years. The first evidence for the existence of a calcium-dependent exocytosis pathway had been provided few years ago when by complementing the ultrastructural studies in situ with dynamic total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) real-time imaging studies in cultured astrocytes it has been shown that astrocytes express glutammatergic vesicles able to undergo regulated exocytosis. In our recent paper we investigated the physiological role of chemokines by studying whether the CXCL12/CXCR4 system triggers release of glutamate by regulated exocytosis. The activation of CXCR4 receptor induces a burst of exocytosis that occurs in the order of a few hundred milliseconds and is mediated by the release of calcium from internal stores. The exocytotic burst unfolds in a time scale much shorter than that of dense-core granules in neurosecretory cells, which are governed by voltage-gated calcium channels. Taking into account that astrocytes are electrically non-excitable and that their release rely only on the activation of GPCRs, the rapid exocytotic pathway is of a difficult interpretation without considering the existence of a local morphological and functional interaction between vesicles and site of calcium release. Indeed, by looking at the spatial organization of endoplasmic reticulum tubules and sites of vesicles docking with TIRF illumination, one can find that endoplasmic reticulum tubules, together with plasma membrane and docked vesicles form complex and peculiar structures of sub-micrometer spaces that provide the structural basis for local calcium signaling. Upon stimulation of group I of mGluR, sub-micrometer localized calcium elevations (hot spots) are generated in the sub-plasma membrane domains of ER. Interestingly, in most cases the sub-membrane calcium events occurred at/near sites where SLMVs underwent exocytosis (interdistance: ≤280 nm), and were in strict temporal correlation with the fusion events. Recent works have shown that glutamate released from astrocytes during physiological synaptic activity targets neuronal receptors in either axonal terminals or dendrites, exerting a neuromodulatory action. In particular in a recent paper it has been shown that at the perforant path–granule cell (PP–GC) synapses in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, astrocytes of the outer molecular layer sense synaptic activity, elevate their intracellular calcium and release glutamate via exocytosis of glutammatergic vesicles. Astrocytic glutamate is released at presynaptic level in close proximity of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors; the activation of such receptors results in an increased synaptic transmitter release and in the strengthening of synaptic transmission. The appreciation that brain activity involves interactive signaling between neurons and glia opens new perspectives for understanding the pathogenesis of brain diseases with strong inflammatory components (such as Alzheimer’s disease and AIDS dementia complex). In particular, in the presence of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and TNFα, changes in the expression of junctional proteins, in propagation of intracellular calcium waves and glutamate release, have been observed. Thus, when local inflammatory reaction is triggered in the brain, microglial cells rapidly migrate to the site of injury become activated and start releasing a number of mediators such as PGs and TNFα, deeply altering the properties of calcium-dependent glutamate release from astrocytes.

Keywords

Glutamate Release CXCR4 Receptor CXCL12 Chemokine Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Angulo MC, Kozlov AS, Charpak S, Audinat E (2004) Glutamate released from glial cells synchronizes neuronal activity in the hippocampus. J Neurosci 24:6920–6927PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arai KI, Lee F, Miyajima A, Miyatake S, Arai N, Yokota T (1990) Cytokines: coordinators of immune and inflammatory responses. Annu Rev Biochem 59:783–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Araque A, Parpura V, Sanzgiri RP, Haydon PG (1999) Tripartite synapses: glia, the unacknowledged partner. Trends Neurosci 22:208–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aravanis AM, Pyle JL, Tsien RW (2003) Single synaptic vesicles fusing transiently and successively without loss of identity. Nature 423:643–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asensio VC, Campbell IL (1999) Chemokines in the CNS: plurifunctional mediators in diverse states. Trends Neurosci 22:504–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Augustine GJ (2001) How does calcium trigger neurotransmitter release? Curr Opin Neurobiol 11:320–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bacon KB, Harrison JK (2000) Chemokines and their receptors in neurobiology: perspectives in physiology and homeostasis. J Neuroimmunol 104:92–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bagetta G, Corasaniti MT, Berliocchi L, Nistico R, Giammarioli AM, Malorni W, Aloe L, Finazzi-Agro A (1999) Involvement of interleukin-1beta in the mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recombinant protein gp120-induced apoptosis in the neocortex of rat. Neuroscience 89:1051–1066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bagri A, Gurney T, He X, Zou YR, Littman DR, Tessier-Lavigne M, Pleasure SJ (2002) The chemokine SDF1 regulates migration of dentate granule cells. Development 129:4249–4260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bajetto A, Bonavia R, Barbero S, Piccioli P, Costa A, Florio T, Schettini G (1999) Glial and neuronal cells express functional chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its natural ligand stromal cell-derived factor 1. J Neurochem 73:2348–2357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bajetto A, Barbero S, Bonavia R, Piccioli P, Pirani P, Florio T, Schettini G (2001) Stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha induces astrocyte proliferation through the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 pathway. J Neurochem 77:1226–1236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Balabanian K, Lagane B, Infantino S, Chow KY, Harriague J, Moepps B, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Thelen M, Bachelerie F (2005) The chemokine SDF-1/CXCL12 binds to and signals through the orphan receptor RDC1 in T lymphocytes. J Biol Chem 280:35760–35766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Banisadr G, Fontanges P, Haour F, Kitabgi P, Rostene W, Melik Parsadaniantz S (2002) Neuroanatomical distribution of CXCR4 in adult rat brain and its localization in cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons. Eur J Neurosci 16:1661–1671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Banisadr G, Skrzydelski D, Kitabgi P, Rostene W, Parsadaniantz SM (2003) Highly regionalized distribution of stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCL12 in adult rat brain: constitutive expression in cholinergic, dopaminergic and vasopressinergic neurons. Eur J Neurosci 18:1593–1606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bezzi P, Volterra A (2001) A neuron-glia signalling network in the active brain. Curr Opin Neurobiol 11:387–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bezzi P, Carmignoto G, Pasti L, Vesce S, Rossi D, Rizzini BL, Pozzan T, Volterra A (1998) Prostaglandins stimulate calcium-dependent glutamate release in astrocytes. Nature 391:281–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bezzi P, Domercq M, Brambilla L, Galli R, Schols D, De Clercq E, Vescovi A, Bagetta G, Kollias G, Meldolesi J, Volterra A (2001) CXCR4-activated astrocyte glutamate release via TNFalpha: amplification by microglia triggers neurotoxicity. Nat Neurosci 4:702–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bezzi P, Gundersen V, Galbete JL, Seifert G, Steinhauser C, Pilati E, Volterra A (2004) Astrocytes contain a vesicular compartment that is competent for regulated exocytosis of glutamate. Nat Neurosci 7:613–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Biber K, Zuurman MW, Dijkstra IM, Boddeke HW (2002) Chemokines in the brain: neuroimmunology and beyond. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2:63–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Blasko I, Veerhuis R, Stampfer-Kountchev M, Saurwein-Teissl M, Eikelenboom P, Grubeck-Loebenstein B (2000) Costimulatory effects of interferon-gamma and interleukin-1beta or tumor necrosis factor alpha on the synthesis of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 by human astrocytes. Neurobiol Dis 7:682–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blaustein MP, Golovina VA (2001) Structural complexity and functional diversity of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores. Trends Neurosci 24:602–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bonavia R, Bajetto A, Barbero S, Pirani P, Florio T, Schettini G (2003) Chemokines and their receptors in the CNS: expression of CXCL12/SDF-1 and CXCR4 and their role in astrocyte proliferation. Toxicol Lett 139:181–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bootman M, Niggli E, Berridge M, Lipp P (1997) Imaging the hierarchical Ca2+ signalling system in HeLa cells. J Physiol 499(Pt 2):307–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bootman MD, Lipp P, Berridge MJ (2001) The organisation and functions of local Ca(2+) signals. J Cell Sci 114:2213–2222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Calì C, Marchaland J, Regazzi R, Bezzi P (2008) SDF 1-alpha (CXCL12) triggers glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes on a millisecond time scale: Imaging analysis at the single-vesicle level with TIRF microscopy. J Neuroimmunol 198:82-91Google Scholar
  26. Campbell IL (1998) Structural and functional impact of the transgenic expression of cytokines in the CNS. Ann N Y Acad Sci 840:83–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carmignoto G, Pasti L, Pozzan T (1998) On the role of voltage-dependent calcium channels in calcium signaling of astrocytes in situ. J Neurosci 18:4637–4645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cartier L, Hartley O, Dubois-Dauphin M, Krause KH (2005) Chemokine receptors in the central nervous system: role in brain inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 48:16–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chalasani SH, Sabelko KA, Sunshine MJ, Littman DR, Raper JA (2003) A chemokine, SDF-1, reduces the effectiveness of multiple axonal repellents and is required for normal axon pathfinding. J Neurosci 23:1360–1371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chalasani SH, Sabol A, Xu H, Gyda MA, Rasband K, Granato M, Chien CB, Raper JA (2007) Stromal cell-derived factor-1 antagonizes slit/robo signaling in vivo. J Neurosci 27:973–980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chen G, Chen KS, Knox J, Inglis J, Bernard A, Martin SJ, Justice A, McConlogue L, Games D, Freedman SB, Morris RG (2000) A learning deficit related to age and beta-amyloid plaques in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Nature 408:975–979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chen D, Zuleger C, Chu Q, Maa YF, Osorio J, Payne LG (2002) Epidermal powder immunization with a recombinant HIV gp120 targets Langerhans cells and induces enhanced immune responses. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 18:715–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chen L, Pei G, Zhang W (2004) An overall picture of chemokine receptors: basic research and drug development. Curr Pharm Des 10:1045–1055PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chen X, Wang L, Zhou Y, Zheng LH, Zhou Z (2005) “Kiss-and-run” glutamate secretion in cultured and freshly isolated rat hippocampal astrocytes. J Neurosci 25:9236–9243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cho C, Miller RJ (2002) Chemokine receptors and neural function. J Neurovirol 8:573–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chong Y (1997) Effect of a carboxy-terminal fragment of the Alzheimer’s amyloid precursor protein on expression of proinflammatory cytokines in rat glial cells. Life Sci 61:2323–2333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chow RH, Klingauf J, Neher E (1994) Time course of Ca2+ concentration triggering exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:12765–12769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chow RH, Klingauf J, Heinemann C, Zucker RS, Neher E (1996) Mechanisms determining the time course of secretion in neuroendocrine cells. Neuron 16:369–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Crippa D, Schenk U, Francolini M, Rosa P, Verderio C, Zonta M, Pozzan T, Matteoli M, Carmignoto G (2006) Synaptobrevin2-expressing vesicles in rat astrocytes: insights into molecular characterization, dynamics and exocytosis. J Physiol 570:567–582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. D’Ascenzo M, Fellin T, Terunuma M, Revilla-Sanchez R, Meaney DF, Auberson YP, Moss SJ, Haydon PG (2007) mGluR5 stimulates gliotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:1995–2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dani JW, Chernjavsky A, Smith SJ (1992) Neuronal activity triggers calcium waves in hippocampal astrocyte networks. Neuron 8:429–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Davalos D, Grutzendler J, Yang G, Kim JV, Zuo Y, Jung S, Littman DR, Dustin ML, Gan WB (2005) ATP mediates rapid microglial response to local brain injury in vivo. Nat Neurosci 8:752–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Del Bo R, Angeretti N, Lucca E, De Simoni MG, Forloni G (1995) Reciprocal control of inflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and IL-6, and beta-amyloid production in cultures. Neurosci Lett 188:70–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Del Villar K, Miller CA (2004) Down-regulation of DENN/MADD, a TNF receptor binding protein, correlates with neuronal cell death in Alzheimer’s disease brain and hippocampal neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:4210–4215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dodart JC, Meziane H, Mathis C, Bales KR, Paul SM, Ungerer A (1999) Behavioral disturbances in transgenic mice overexpressing the V717F beta-amyloid precursor protein. Behav Neurosci 113:982–990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Domercq M, Brambilla L, Pilati E, Marchaland J, Volterra A, Bezzi P (2006) P2Y1 receptor-evoked glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes: control by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and prostaglandins. J Biol Chem 281:30684–30696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dore GJ, Correll PK, Li Y, Kaldor JM, Cooper DA, Brew BJ (1999) Changes to AIDS dementia complex in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 13:1249–1253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Duan S, Anderson CM, Keung EC, Chen Y, Chen Y, Swanson RA (2003) P2X7 receptor-mediated release of excitatory amino acids from astrocytes. J Neurosci 23:1320–1328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Duffy HS, John GR, Lee SC, Brosnan CF, Spray DC (2000) Reciprocal regulation of the junctional proteins claudin-1 and connexin43 by interleukin-1beta in primary human fetal astrocytes. J Neurosci 20:RC114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Eilbott DJ, Peress N, Burger H, LaNeve D, Orenstein J, Gendelman HE, Seidman R, Weiser B (1989) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in spinal cords of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with myelopathy: expression and replication in macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 86:3337–41Google Scholar
  51. Ellis RJ, Deutsch R, Heaton RK, Marcotte TD, McCutchan JA, Nelson JA, Abramson I, Thal LJ, Atkinson JH, Wallace MR, Grant I (1997) Neurocognitive impairment is an independent risk factor for death in HIV infection. San Diego HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center Group. Arch Neurol 54:416–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Everall IP, Heaton RK, Marcotte TD, Ellis RJ, McCutchan JA, Atkinson JH, Grant I, Mallory M, Masliah E (1999) Cortical synaptic density is reduced in mild to moderate human immunodeficiency virus neurocognitive disorder. HNRC Group. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center. Brain Pathol 9:209–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fellin T, Pascual O, Gobbo S, Pozzan T, Haydon PG, Carmignoto G (2004) Neuronal synchrony mediated by astrocytic glutamate through activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. Neuron 43:729–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Feng Y, Broder CC, Kennedy PE, Berger EA (1996) HIV-1 entry cofactor: functional cDNA cloning of a seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor. Science 272:872–877PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fernandez EJ, Lolis E (2002) Structure, function, and inhibition of chemokines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 42:469–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fiacco TA, McCarthy KD (2006) Astrocyte calcium elevations: properties, propagation, and effects on brain signaling. Glia 54:676–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fitch MT, Doller C, Combs CK, Landreth GE, Silver J (1999) Cellular and molecular mechanisms of glial scarring and progressive cavitation: in vivo and in vitro analysis of inflammation-induced secondary injury after CNS trauma. J Neurosci 19:8182–8198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Games D, Adams D, Alessandrini R, Barbour R, Berthelette P, Blackwell C, Carr T, Clemens J, Donaldson T, Gillespie F et al (1995) Alzheimer-type neuropathology in transgenic mice overexpressing V717F beta-amyloid precursor protein. Nature 373:523–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Garden GA, Guo W, Jayadev S, Tun C, Balcaitis S, Choi J, Montine TJ, Moller T, Morrison RS (2004) HIV associated neurodegeneration requires p53 in neurons and microglia. Faseb J 18:1141–1143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Gartner S (2000) HIV infection and dementia. Science 287:602–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gendelman HE, Persidsky Y (2005) Infections of the nervous system. Lancet Neurol 4:12–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gerard C, Rollins BJ (2001) Chemokines and disease. Nat Immunol 2:108–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gitter BD, Cox LM, Rydel RE, May PC (1995) Amyloid beta peptide potentiates cytokine secretion by interleukin-1 beta-activated human astrocytoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:10738–10741PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Giulian D, Yu J, Li X, Tom D, Li J, Wendt E, Lin SN, Schwarcz R, Noonan C (1996) Study of receptor-mediated neurotoxins released by HIV-1-infected mononuclear phagocytes found in human brain. J Neurosci 16:3139–3153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Gleichmann M, Gillen C, Czardybon M, Bosse F, Greiner-Petter R, Auer J, Muller HW (2000) Cloning and characterization of SDF-1gamma, a novel SDF-1 chemokine transcript with developmentally regulated expression in the nervous system. Eur J Neurosci 12:1857–1866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Glenner GG, Wong CW (1984) Alzheimer’s disease: initial report of the purification and characterization of a novel cerebrovascular amyloid protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 120:885–890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Grosche J, Matyash V, Moller T, Verkhratsky A, Reichenbach A, Kettenmann H (1999) Microdomains for neuron-glia interaction: parallel fiber signaling to Bergmann glial cells. Nat Neurosci 2:139–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Grosche J, Kettenmann H, Reichenbach A (2002) Bergmann glial cells form distinct morphological structures to interact with cerebellar neurons. J Neurosci Res 68:138–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gundelfinger ED, Kessels MM, Qualmann B (2003) Temporal and spatial coordination of exocytosis and endocytosis. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4:127–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Guyon A, Nahon JL (2007) Multiple actions of the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha on neuronal activity. J Mol Endocrinol 38:365–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Guyon A, Rovere C, Cervantes A, Allaeys I, Nahon JL (2005a) Stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha directly modulates voltage-dependent currents of the action potential in mammalian neuronal cells. J Neurochem 93:963–973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Guyon A, Banisadr G, Rovere C, Cervantes A, Kitabgi P, Melik-Parsadaniantz S, Nahon JL (2005b) Complex effects of stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha on melanin-concentrating hormone neuron excitability. Eur J Neurosci 21:701–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Guyon A, Skrzydelsi D, Rovere C, Rostene W, Parsadaniantz SM, Nahon JL (2006) Stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha modulation of the excitability of rat substantia nigra dopaminergic neurones: presynaptic mechanisms. J Neurochem 96:1540–1550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Halassa MM, Fellin T, Takano H, Dong JH, Haydon PG (2007) Synaptic islands defined by the territory of a single astrocyte. J Neurosci 27:6473–6477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Harata N, Pyle JL, Aravanis AM, Mozhayeva M, Kavalali ET, Tsien RW (2001) Limited numbers of recycling vesicles in small CNS nerve terminals: implications for neural signaling and vesicular cycling. Trends Neurosci 24:637–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Harata NC, Aravanis AM, Tsien RW (2006) Kiss-and-run and full-collapse fusion as modes of exo-endocytosis in neurosecretion. J Neurochem 97:1546–1570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hartlage-Rubsamen M, Zeitschel U, Apelt J, Gartner U, Franke H, Stahl T, Gunther A, Schliebs R, Penkowa M, Bigl V, Rossner S (2003) Astrocytic expression of the Alzheimer’s disease beta-secretase (BACE1) is stimulus-dependent. Glia 41:169–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Haydon PG, Carmignoto G (2006) Astrocyte control of synaptic transmission and neurovascular coupling. Physiol Rev 86:1009–1031PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. He J, Chen Y, Farzan M, Choe H, Ohagen A, Gartner S, Busciglio J, Yang X, Hofmann W, Newman W, Mackay CR, Sodroski J, Gabuzda D (1997) CCR3 and CCR5 are co-receptors for HIV-1 infection of microglia. Nature 385:645–649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hesselgesser J, Taub D, Baskar P, Greenberg M, Hoxie J, Kolson DL, Horuk R (1998) Neuronal apoptosis induced by HIV-1 gp120 and the chemokine SDF-1 alpha is mediated by the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Curr Biol 8:595–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Heyser CJ, Masliah E, Samimi A, Campbell IL, Gold LH (1997) Progressive decline in avoidance learning paralleled by inflammatory neurodegeneration in transgenic mice expressing interleukin 6 in the brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:1500–1505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Huising MO, Stet RJ, Kruiswijk CP, Savelkoul HF, Lidy Verburg-van Kemenade BM (2003) Molecular evolution of CXC chemokines: extant CXC chemokines originate from the CNS. Trends Immunol 24:307–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Jazin EE, Soderstrom S, Ebendal T, Larhammar D (1997) Embryonic expression of the mRNA for the rat homologue of the fusin/CXCR-4 HIV-1 co-receptor. J Neuroimmunol 79:148–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Jeremic A, Jeftinija K, Stevanovic J, Glavaski A, Jeftinija S (2001) ATP stimulates calcium-dependent glutamate release from cultured astrocytes. J Neurochem 77:664–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. John GR, Scemes E, Suadicani SO, Liu JS, Charles PC, Lee SC, Spray DC, Brosnan CF (1999) IL-1beta differentially regulates calcium wave propagation between primary human fetal astrocytes via pathways involving P2 receptors and gap junction channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:11613–11618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Jourdain P, Bergersen LH, Bhaukaurally K, Bezzi P, Santello M, Domercq M, Matute C, Tonello F, Gundersen V, Volterra A (2007) Glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes controls synaptic strength. Nat Neurosci 10:331–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kang N, Xu J, Xu Q, Nedergaard M, Kang J (2005) Astrocytic glutamate release-induced transient depolarization and epileptiform discharges in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. J Neurophysiol 94:4121–4130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kasai H (1999) Comparative biology of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis: implications of kinetic diversity for secretory function. Trends Neurosci 22:88–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kasai H, Kishimoto T, Liu TT, Miyashita Y, Podini P, Grohovaz F, Meldolesi J (1999) Multiple and diverse forms of regulated exocytosis in wild-type and defective PC12 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:945–949PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kaul M, Lipton SA (1999) Chemokines and activated macrophages in HIV gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:8212–8216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kaul M, Garden GA, Lipton SA (2001) Pathways to neuronal injury and apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia. Nature 410:988–994PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kaul M, Zheng J, Okamoto S, Gendelman HE, Lipton SA (2005) HIV-1 infection and AIDS: consequences for the central nervous system. Cell Death Differ 12(Suppl 1):878–892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kimelberg HK, Goderie SK, Higman S, Pang S, Waniewski RA (1990) Swelling-induced release of glutamate, aspartate, and taurine from astrocyte cultures. J Neurosci 10:1583–1591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Klein RS, Rubin JB (2004) Immune and nervous system CXCL12 and CXCR4: parallel roles in patterning and plasticity. Trends Immunol 25:306–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Klein RS, Williams KC, Alvarez-Hernandez X, Westmoreland S, Force T, Lackner AA, Luster AD (1999) Chemokine receptor expression and signaling in macaque and human fetal neurons and astrocytes: implications for the neuropathogenesis of AIDS. J Immunol 163:1636–1646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Klein RS, Rubin JB, Gibson HD, DeHaan EN, Alvarez-Hernandez X, Segal RA, Luster AD (2001) SDF-1 alpha induces chemotaxis and enhances Sonic hedgehog-induced proliferation of cerebellar granule cells. Development 128:1971–1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Koenig RE, Gautier T, Levy JA (1986) Unusual intrafamilial transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Lancet 2:627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kreft M, Stenovec M, Rupnik M, Grilc S, Krzan M, Potokar M, Pangrsic T, Haydon PG, Zorec R (2004) Properties of Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis in cultured astrocytes. Glia 46:437–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Laing KJ, Secombes CJ (2004) Chemokines. Dev Comp Immunol 28:443–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Latour I, Gee CE, Robitaille R, Lacaille JC (2001) Differential mechanisms of Ca2+ responses in glial cells evoked by exogenous and endogenous glutamate in rat hippocampus. Hippocampus 11:132–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lavi E, Strizki JM, Ulrich AM, Zhang W, Fu L, Wang Q, O’Connor M, Hoxie JA, Gonzalez-Scarano F (1997) CXCR-4 (Fusin), a co-receptor for the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), is expressed in the human brain in a variety of cell types, including microglia and neurons. Am J Pathol 151:1035–1042PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Lazarini F, Casanova P, Tham TN, De Clercq E, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Baleux F, Dubois-Dalcq M (2000) Differential signalling of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by stromal cell-derived factor 1 and the HIV glycoprotein in rat neurons and astrocytes. Eur J Neurosci 12:117–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lazarini F, Tham TN, Casanova P, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Dubois-Dalcq M (2003) Role of the alpha-chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1) in the developing and mature central nervous system. Glia 42:139–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lee YB, Nagai A, Kim SU (2002) Cytokines, chemokines, and cytokine receptors in human microglia. J Neurosci Res 69:94–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Li M, Ransohoff RM (2008) Multiple roles of chemokine CXCL12 in the central nervous system: a migration from immunology to neurobiology. Prog Neurobiol 84:116–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lieberam I, Agalliu D, Nagasawa T, Ericson J, Jessell TM (2005) A Cxcl12-CXCR4 chemokine signaling pathway defines the initial trajectory of mammalian motor axons. Neuron 47:667–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Limatola C, Giovannelli A, Maggi L, Ragozzino D, Castellani L, Ciotti MT, Vacca F, Mercanti D, Santoni A, Eusebi F (2000) SDF-1alpha-mediated modulation of synaptic transmission in rat cerebellum. Eur J Neurosci 12:2497–2504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Liu JS, John GR, Sikora A, Lee SC, Brosnan CF (2000) Modulation of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha signaling by P2 purinergic receptors in human fetal astrocytes. J Neurosci 20:5292–5299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Lu M, Grove EA, Miller RJ (2002) Abnormal development of the hippocampal dentate gyrus in mice lacking the CXCR4 chemokine receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:7090–7095PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Luster AD (1998) Chemokines–chemotactic cytokines that mediate inflammation. N Engl J Med 338:436–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Luther SA, Cyster JG (2001) Chemokines as regulators of T cell differentiation. Nat Immunol 2:102–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ma Q, Jones D, Borghesani PR, Segal RA, Nagasawa T, Kishimoto T, Bronson RT, Springer TA (1998) Impaired B-lymphopoiesis, myelopoiesis, and derailed cerebellar neuron migration in CXCR4- and SDF-1-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:9448–9453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Major EO, Rausch D, Marra C, Clifford D (2000) HIV-associated dementia. Science 288:440–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Marchaland J, Calì C, Voglmaier SM, Li H, Regazzi R, Edwards RH, Bezzi P (2008) Fast sub-plasma membrane Ca2+ transients control exo-endocytosis of SLMVs in astrocytes. J Neurosci 28:9122–9132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Masliah E, Sisk A, Mallory M, Mucke L, Schenk D, Games D (1996) Comparison of neurodegenerative pathology in transgenic mice overexpressing V717F beta-amyloid precursor protein and Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurosci 16:5795–5811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Masliah E, Heaton RK, Marcotte TD, Ellis RJ, Wiley CA, Mallory M, Achim CL, McCutchan JA, Nelson JA, Atkinson JH, Grant I (1997) Dendritic injury is a pathological substrate for human immunodeficiency virus-related cognitive disorders. HNRC Group. The HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center. Ann Neurol 42:963–972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. McArthur JC, Hoover DR, Bacellar H, Miller EN, Cohen BA, Becker JT, Graham NM, McArthur JH, Selnes OA, Jacobson LP et al (1993) Dementia in AIDS patients: incidence and risk factors. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Neurology 43:2245–2252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. McGeer PL, McGeer EG (2002) Local neuroinflammation and the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurovirol 8:529–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. McGeer PL, McGeer EG (2004) Inflammation and the degenerative diseases of aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1035:104–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. McGrath KE, Koniski AD, Maltby KM, McGann JK, Palis J (1999) Embryonic expression and function of the chemokine SDF-1 and its receptor, CXCR4. Dev Biol 213:442–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mennicken F, Maki R, de Souza EB, Quirion R (1999) Chemokines and chemokine receptors in the CNS: a possible role in neuroinflammation and patterning. Trends Pharmacol Sci 20:73–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Meucci O, Miller RJ (1996) gp120-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampal pyramidal neuron cultures: protective action of TGF-beta1. J Neurosci 16:4080–4088PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Meucci O, Fatatis A, Simen AA, Bushell TJ, Gray PW, Miller RJ (1998) Chemokines regulate hippocampal neuronal signaling and gp120 neurotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:14500–14505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Michael NL, Moore JP (1999) HIV-1 entry inhibitors: evading the issue. Nat Med 5:740–742PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Miller RJ, Meucci O (1999) AIDS and the brain: is there a chemokine connection? Trends Neurosci 22:471–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Minghetti L (2005) Role of inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. Curr Opin Neurol 18:315–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Montana V, Ni Y, Sunjara V, Hua X, Parpura V (2004) Vesicular glutamate transporter-dependent glutamate release from astrocytes. J Neurosci 24:2633–2642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Murphy TH, Blatter LA, Wier WG, Baraban JM (1993) Rapid communication between neurons and astrocytes in primary cortical cultures. J Neurosci 13:2672–2679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Murphy PM, Baggiolini M, Charo IF, Hebert CA, Horuk R, Matsushima K, Miller LH, Oppenheim JJ, Power CA (2000) International union of pharmacology. XXII. Nomenclature for chemokine receptors. Pharmacol Rev 52:145–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Nagasawa T, Nakajima T, Tachibana K, Iizasa H, Bleul CC, Yoshie O, Matsushima K, Yoshida N, Springer TA, Kishimoto T (1996) Molecular cloning and characterization of a murine pre-B-cell growth-stimulating factor/stromal cell-derived factor 1 receptor, a murine homolog of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 entry coreceptor fusin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:14726–14729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Navarrete M, Araque A (2008) Endocannabinoids mediate neuron-astrocyte communication. Neuron 57:883–893PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Nedergaard M, Ransom B, Goldman SA (2003) New roles for astrocytes: redefining the functional architecture of the brain. Trends Neurosci 26:523–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Neves SR, Ram PT, Iyengar R (2002) G protein pathways. Science 296:1636–1639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Ni Y, Malarkey EB, Parpura V (2007) Vesicular release of glutamate mediates bidirectional signaling between astrocytes and neurons. J Neurochem 103:1273–1284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Nimmerjahn A, Kirchhoff F, Helmchen F (2005) Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo. Science 308:1314–1318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Ohagen A, Ghosh S, He J, Huang K, Chen Y, Yuan M, Osathanondh R, Gartner S, Shi B, Shaw G, Gabuzda D (1999) Apoptosis induced by infection of primary brain cultures with diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates: evidence for a role of the envelope. J Virol 73:897–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Ohtani Y, Minami M, Kawaguchi N, Nishiyori A, Yamamoto J, Takami S, Satoh M (1998) Expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1 and CXCR4 chemokine receptor mRNAs in cultured rat glial and neuronal cells. Neurosci Lett 249:163–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Parpura V, Basarsky TA, Liu F, Jeftinija K, Jeftinija S, Haydon PG (1994) Glutamate-mediated astrocyte-neuron signalling. Nature 369:744–747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Parri HR, Gould TM, Crunelli V (2001) Spontaneous astrocytic Ca2+ oscillations in situ drive NMDAR-mediated neuronal excitation. Nat Neurosci 4:803–812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Pasti L, Volterra A, Pozzan T, Carmignoto G (1997) Intracellular calcium oscillations in astrocytes: a highly plastic, bidirectional form of communication between neurons and astrocytes in situ. J Neurosci 17:7817–7830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Pasti L, Zonta M, Pozzan T, Vicini S, Carmignoto G (2001) Cytosolic calcium oscillations in astrocytes may regulate exocytotic release of glutamate. J Neurosci 21:477–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Penner R, Neher E (1988) The role of calcium in stimulus-secretion coupling in excitable and non-excitable cells. J Exp Biol 139:329–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Perea G, Araque A (2005) Properties of synaptically evoked astrocyte calcium signal reveal synaptic information processing by astrocytes. J Neurosci 25:2192–2203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Perea G, Araque A (2007) Astrocytes potentiate transmitter release at single hippocampal synapses. Science 317:1083–1086PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Perry VH, Bell MD, Brown HC, Matyszak MK (1995) Inflammation in the nervous system. Curr Opin Neurobiol 5:636–641PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Persidsky Y, Limoges J, Rasmussen J, Zheng J, Gearing A, Gendelman HE (2001) Reduction in glial immunity and neuropathology by a PAF antagonist and an MMP and TNFalpha inhibitor in SCID mice with HIV-1 encephalitis. J Neuroimmunol 114:57–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Pillarisetti K, Gupta SK (2001) Cloning and relative expression analysis of rat stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1)1: SDF-1 alpha mRNA is selectively induced in rat model of myocardial infarction. Inflammation 25:293–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Porter JT, McCarthy KD (1995a) Adenosine receptors modulate [Ca2+]i in hippocampal astrocytes in situ. J Neurochem 65:1515–1523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Porter JT, McCarthy KD (1995b) GFAP-positive hippocampal astrocytes in situ respond to glutamatergic neuroligands with increases in [Ca2+]i. Glia 13:101–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Porter JT, McCarthy KD (1996) Hippocampal astrocytes in situ respond to glutamate released from synaptic terminals. J Neurosci 16:5073–5081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Power C, Gill MJ, Johnson RT (2002) Progress in clinical neurosciences: The neuropathogenesis of HIV infection: host-virus interaction and the impact of therapy. Can J Neurol Sci 29:19–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Ragozzino D, Renzi M, Giovannelli A, Eusebi F (2002) Stimulation of chemokine CXC receptor 4 induces synaptic depression of evoked parallel fibers inputs onto Purkinje neurons in mouse cerebellum. J Neuroimmunol 127:30–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Ransohoff RM, Liu L, Cardona AE (2007) Chemokines and chemokine receptors: multipurpose players in neuroinflammation. Int Rev Neurobiol 82:187–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Ravaglia G, Paola F, Maioli F, Martelli M, Montesi F, Bastagli L, Bianchin M, Chiappelli M, Tumini E, Bolondi L, Licastro F (2006) Interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms as risk factors for AD: a prospective study. Exp Gerontol 41:85–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Reilly JF, Games D, Rydel RE, Freedman S, Schenk D, Young WG, Morrison JH, Bloom FE (2003) Amyloid deposition in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex: quantitative analysis of a transgenic mouse model. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:4837–4842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Rezaie P, Trillo-Pazos G, Everall IP, Male DK (2002) Expression of beta-chemokines and chemokine receptors in human fetal astrocyte and microglial co-cultures: potential role of chemokines in the developing CNS. Glia 37:64–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Richards DA, Mateos JM, Hugel S, de Paola V, Caroni P, Gahwiler BH, McKinney RA (2005) Glutamate induces the rapid formation of spine head protrusions in hippocampal slice cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:6166–6171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Rizzoli SO, Jahn R (2007) Kiss-and-run, collapse and ‘readily retrievable’ vesicles. Traffic 8:1137–1144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Rizzuto R, Pozzan T (2006) Microdomains of intracellular Ca2+: molecular determinants and functional consequences. Physiol Rev 86:369–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Rojo LE, Fernandez JA, Maccioni AA, Jimenez JM, Maccioni RB (2008) Neuroinflammation: implications for the pathogenesis and molecular diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Arch Med Res 39:1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Rossi D, Zlotnik A (2000) The biology of chemokines and their receptors. Annu Rev Immunol 18:217–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Rossi DJ, Oshima T, Attwell D (2000) Glutamate release in severe brain ischaemia is mainly by reversed uptake. Nature 403:316–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Rossi D, Brambilla L, Valori CF, Crugnola A, Giaccone G, Capobianco R, Mangieri M, Kingston AE, Bloc A, Bezzi P, Volterra A (2005) Defective tumor necrosis factor-alpha-dependent control of astrocyte glutamate release in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease. J Biol Chem 280:42088–42096PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Rostene W, Kitabgi P, Parsadaniantz SM (2007) Chemokines: a new class of neuromodulator? Nat Rev Neurosci 8:895–903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Rottman JB, Ganley KP, Williams K, Wu L, Mackay CR, Ringler DJ (1997) Cellular localization of the chemokine receptor CCR5. Correlation to cellular targets of HIV-1 infection. Am J Pathol 151:1341–1351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Saez ET, Pehar M, Vargas MR, Barbeito L, Maccioni RB (2006) Production of nerve growth factor by beta-amyloid-stimulated astrocytes induces p75NTR-dependent tau hyperphosphorylation in cultured hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci Res 84:1098–1106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Sala C, Roussignol G, Meldolesi J, Fagni L (2005) Key role of the postsynaptic density scaffold proteins Shank and Homer in the functional architecture of Ca2+ homeostasis at dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci 25:4587–4592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Santello M, Volterra A (2008) Synaptic modulation by astrocytes via Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate release. Neuroscience 158:253-9Google Scholar
  169. Sanzgiri RP, Araque A, Haydon PG (1999) Prostaglandin E(2) stimulates glutamate receptor-dependent astrocyte neuromodulation in cultured hippocampal cells. J Neurobiol 41:221–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Schipke CG, Kettenmann H (2004) Astrocyte responses to neuronal activity. Glia 47:226–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Schneggenburger R, Neher E (2005) Presynaptic calcium and control of vesicle fusion. Curr Opin Neurobiol 15:266–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Serrano A, Haddjeri N, Lacaille JC, Robitaille R (2006) GABAergic network activation of glial cells underlies hippocampal heterosynaptic depression. J Neurosci 26:5370–5382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Streit WJ, Conde JR, Harrison JK (2001) Chemokines and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 22:909–913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Stumm RK, Rummel J, Junker V, Culmsee C, Pfeiffer M, Krieglstein J, Hollt V, Schulz S (2002) A dual role for the SDF-1/CXCR4 chemokine receptor system in adult brain: isoform-selective regulation of SDF-1 expression modulates CXCR4-dependent neuronal plasticity and cerebral leukocyte recruitment after focal ischemia. J Neurosci 22:5865–5878PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Suzuki N, Cheung TT, Cai XD, Odaka A, Otvos L Jr, Eckman C, Golde TE, Younkin SG (1994) An increased percentage of long amyloid beta protein secreted by familial amyloid beta protein precursor (beta APP717) mutants. Science 264:1336–1340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Tachibana K, Hirota S, Iizasa H, Yoshida H, Kawabata K, Kataoka Y, Kitamura Y, Matsushima K, Yoshida N, Nishikawa S, Kishimoto T, Nagasawa T (1998) The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is essential for vascularization of the gastrointestinal tract. Nature 393:591–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Takano T, Kang J, Jaiswal JK, Simon SM, Lin JH, Yu Y, Li Y, Yang J, Dienel G, Zielke HR, Nedergaard M (2005) Receptor-mediated glutamate release from volume sensitive channels in astrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:16466–16471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Tashiro K, Tada H, Heilker R, Shirozu M, Nakano T, Honjo T (1993) Signal sequence trap: a cloning strategy for secreted proteins and type I membrane proteins. Science 261:600–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Tham TN, Lazarini F, Franceschini IA, Lachapelle F, Amara A, Dubois-Dalcq M (2001) Developmental pattern of expression of the alpha chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 in the rat central nervous system. Eur J Neurosci 13:845–856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Thomas D, Lipp P, Tovey SC, Berridge MJ, Li W, Tsien RY, Bootman MD (2000) Microscopic properties of elementary Ca2+ release sites in non-excitable cells. Curr Biol 10:8–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Toggas SM, Masliah E, Rockenstein EM, Rall GF, Abraham CR, Mucke L (1994) Central nervous system damage produced by expression of the HIV-1 coat protein gp120 in transgenic mice. Nature 367:188–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Toggas SM, Masliah E, Mucke L (1996) Prevention of HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal damage in the central nervous system of transgenic mice by the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine. Brain Res 706:303–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Tovey SC, de Smet P, Lipp P, Thomas D, Young KW, Missiaen L, De Smedt H, Parys JB, Berridge MJ, Thuring J, Holmes A, Bootman MD (2001) Calcium puffs are generic InsP(3)-activated elementary calcium signals and are downregulated by prolonged hormonal stimulation to inhibit cellular calcium responses. J Cell Sci 114:3979–3989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Tran PB, Miller RJ (2003) Chemokine receptors: signposts to brain development and disease. Nat Rev Neurosci 4:444–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Tse FW, Tse A, Hille B, Horstmann H, Almers W (1997) Local Ca2+ release from internal stores controls exocytosis in pituitary gonadotrophs. Neuron 18:121–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Tu JC, Xiao B, Yuan JP, Lanahan AA, Leoffert K, Li M, Linden DJ, Worley PF (1998) Homer binds a novel proline-rich motif and links group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors with IP3 receptors. Neuron 21:717–726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Ubogu EE, Cossoy MB, Ransohoff RM (2006) The expression and function of chemokines involved in CNS inflammation. Trends Pharmacol Sci 27:48–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Verkhratsky A, Orkand RK, Kettenmann H (1998) Glial calcium: homeostasis and signaling function. Physiol Rev 78:99–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Vesce S, Rossi D, Brambilla L, Volterra A (2007) Glutamate release from astrocytes in physiolo­gical conditions and in neurodegenerative disorders characterized by neuroinflammation. Int Rev Neurobiol 82:57–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Vila M, Jackson-Lewis V, Guegan C, Wu DC, Teismann P, Choi DK, Tieu K, Przedborski S (2001) The role of glial cells in Parkinson’s disease. Curr Opin Neurol 14:483–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Volterra A, Meldolesi J (2005) Astrocytes, from brain glue to communication elements: the revolution continues. Nat Rev Neurosci 6:626–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Wang X, Lou N, Xu Q, Tian GF, Peng WG, Han X, Kang J, Takano T, Nedergaard M (2006) Astrocytic Ca2+ signaling evoked by sensory stimulation in vivo. Nat Neurosci 9:816–823PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Warr O, Takahashi M, Attwell D (1999) Modulation of extracellular glutamate concentration in rat brain slices by cystine-glutamate exchange. J Physiol 514(Pt 3):783–793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Wesselingh SL, Takahashi K, Glass JD, McArthur JC, Griffin JW, Griffin DE (1997) Cellular localization of tumor necrosis factor mRNA in neurological tissue from HIV-infected patients by combined reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. J Neuroimmunol 74:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Winship IR, Plaa N, Murphy TH (2007) Rapid astrocyte calcium signals correlate with neuronal activity and onset of the hemodynamic response in vivo. J Neurosci 27:6268–6272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Wu MM, Buchanan J, Luik RM, Lewis RS (2006) Ca2+ store depletion causes STIM1 to accumulate in ER regions closely associated with the plasma membrane. J Cell Biol 174:803–813PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Wyss-Coray T (2006) Inflammation in Alzheimer disease: driving force, bystander or beneficial response? Nat Med 12:1005–1015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Xiao B, Tu JC, Petralia RS, Yuan JP, Doan A, Breder CD, Ruggiero A, Lanahan AA, Wenthold RJ, Worley PF (1998) Homer regulates the association of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors with multivalent complexes of homer-related, synaptic proteins. Neuron 21:707–716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Ye ZC, Wyeth MS, Baltan-Tekkok S, Ransom BR (2003) Functional hemichannels in astrocytes: a novel mechanism of glutamate release. J Neurosci 23:3588–3596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Yoshimura T, Matsushima K, Tanaka S, Robinson EA, Appella E, Oppenheim JJ, Leonard EJ (1987) Purification of a human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor that has peptide sequence similarity to other host defense cytokines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:9233–9237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Zenisek D, Steyer JA, Almers W (2000) Transport, capture and exocytosis of single synaptic vesicles at active zones. Nature 406:849–854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Zenisek D, Steyer JA, Feldman ME, Almers W (2002) A membrane marker leaves synaptic vesicles in milliseconds after exocytosis in retinal bipolar cells. Neuron 35:1085–1097PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Zhang L, He T, Talal A, Wang G, Frankel SS, Ho DD (1998) In vivo distribution of the human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus coreceptors: CXCR4, CCR3, and CCR5. J Virol 72:5035–5045PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Zhang Q, Fukuda M, Van Bockstaele E, Pascual O, Haydon PG (2004a) Synaptotagmin IV regulates glial glutamate release. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:9441–9446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Zhang Q, Pangrsic T, Kreft M, Krzan M, Li N, Sul JY, Halassa M, Van Bockstaele E, Zorec R, Haydon PG (2004b) Fusion-related release of glutamate from astrocytes. J Biol Chem 279:12724–12733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Zhao M, Su J, Head E, Cotman CW (2003) Accumulation of caspase cleaved amyloid precursor protein represents an early neurodegenerative event in aging and in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Dis 14:391–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Zheng J, Ghorpade A, Niemann D, Cotter RL, Thylin MR, Epstein L, Swartz JM, Shepard RB, Liu X, Nukuna A, Gendelman HE (1999a) Lymphotropic virions affect chemokine receptor-mediated neural signaling and apoptosis: implications for human immunodeficiency virus type 1-associated dementia. J Virol 73:8256–8267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Zheng J, Thylin MR, Ghorpade A, Xiong H, Persidsky Y, Cotter R, Niemann D, Che M, Zeng YC, Gelbard HA, Shepard RB, Swartz JM, Gendelman HE (1999b) Intracellular CXCR4 signaling, neuronal apoptosis and neuropathogenic mechanisms of HIV-1-associated dementia. J Neuroimmunol 98:185–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Zou YR, Kottmann AH, Kuroda M, Taniuchi I, Littman DR (1998) Function of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in haematopoiesis and in cerebellar development. Nature 393:595–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Corrado Calì
    • 1
  • Julie Marchaland
    • 1
  • Osvaldo Mirante
    • 1
  • Paola Bezzi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cellular Biology and Morphology (DBCM), Faculty of MedicineUniversity of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations