Non-Small Cell Carcinomas

  • Annikka Weissferdt
  • Cesar A. Moran


Lung cancer is the leading cause of death in the USA in comparison to other types of malignancies. In 2007, it was estimated that more than 203,000 people in the USA were diagnosed with lung carcinoma, including approximately 109,000 men and 93,000 women. On the other hand, in general terms, approximately 158,000 people died due to this malignancy at a similar rate between men and women—about 88,000 men and 70,000 women. Interestingly, when one compares different ethnic groups, one may observe that black men have the highest incidence of lung cancer followed by white men; however, the contrary occurs for women, in which white women appear to be more commonly affected than black women. Despite the alarming numbers, lung cancer has decreased by about 1.8 % among white men and 2.7 % among black men from previous years (1996–2006).


Squamous Cell Carcinoma Signet Ring Cell Large Cell Carcinoma Adenosquamous Carcinoma Sarcomatoid Carcinoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
  2. 2. Accessed on 1 June 2011.
  3. 3.
    Stanley K, Stjernsward J. Lung cancer: a worldwide health problem. Chest. 1989;96 Suppl 1:1S–5S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Garfikel L, Silverberg E. Lung cancer and smoking trends in the United States over the past 25 years. CA Cancer J Clin. 1991;41:137–45.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rubin SA. Lung cancer: past, present, and future. J Thorac Imaging. 1991;7:1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aronchik JM. Clinical aspects of lung cancer. Semin Roentgenol. 1990;25:5–11.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gritz ER. Lung cancer: now, more than ever, a feminist issue. CA Cancer J Clin. 1993;43:197–9.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Devesa SS, Shaw GL, Blot WJ. Changing patterns of lung carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1991;1:29–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rosado-de-Christenson ML, Templeton PA, Moran CA. Bronchogenic carcinoma: radiologic/pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 1994;14:429–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wahbah M, Boroumand N, Castro Y, et al. Changing trends in the distribution of the histologic types of lung cancer: a review of 4,439 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2007;11:89–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pietra GG. The pathology of carcinoma of the lung. Semin Roentgenol. 1990;25:25–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Haque AK. Pathology of carcinoma of the lung: an update on current concepts. J Thorac Imaging. 1991;7:9–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boyards MC. Clinical manifestations of carcinoma of the lung. J Thorac Imaging. 1991;7:21–8.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grippi MA. Clinical aspects of lung cancer. Semin Roentgenol. 1990;25:12–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Frazer RG, Pare JAP, Frazer RS, Genereux GP. Neoplastic diseases of the lung. In: Frazer RG et al., editors. Diagnosis of diseases of the chest. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1989. p. 1327–99.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morita T. A statistical study of lung cancer in the annual of pathological autopsy cases in Japan from 1958–1997, with reference to time trends of lung cancer in the world. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2002;93:15–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Travis WD, Brambilla E, Noguchi M, et al. International association for the study of lung cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society International Multidisciplinary Classification of Lung Adenocarcinoma. J Thorac Oncol. 2011;6:244–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yamamoto Y, Tsuchida M, Watanabe T, et al. Early resection of a prospective study of limited resection for bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinoma of the lung. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;71:971–4.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Watanabe S, Watanabe T, Arai K, et al. Results of wedge resection for focal bronchioloalveolar carcinoma showing pure ground-glass attenuation on computed tomography. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;73:1071–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Suzuki K, Asamura H, Kusumoto M, et al. “Early” peripheral lung cancer: prognostic significance of ground glass opacity on thin-section computed tomography scan. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;74:1635–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sakurai H, Dobashi Y, Mizutani E, et al. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung 3 centimeters of less in diameter: a retrospective assessment. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;78:1728–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yamada S, Kohno T. Video-assisted thoracic surgery for pure ground-glass opacities 2 cm or less in diameter. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;77:1911–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yoshida J, Nagai K, Yokose T, et al. Limited resection trial for pulmonary ground-glass opacity nodules: fifty-case experience. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;129:991–6.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Koike T, Togashi K, Shirato T, et al. Limited resection for non-invasive bronchioloalveolar carcinoma diagnosed by intraoperative pathologic examination. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;88:1106–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vasques M, Carter D, Brambilla E, et al. Solitary and multiple resected adenocarcinomas after CT screening for lung cancer: Histopathologic features and their prognostic implications. Lung Cancer. 2009;64:148–54.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yoshizawa A, Motoi N, Riely GJ, et al. Impact of proposed IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of lung adenocarcinoma: prognostic subgroups and implications for further revision of staging based on analysis of 514 stage I cases. Mod Pathol. 2011;24:653–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sakurai H, Maeshima A, Watanabe S, et al. Grade of stromal invasion in small adenocarcinomas of the lung. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;28:198–206.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yim J, Zhu LC, Chiriboga L, et al. Histological features are important prognostic indicators in early stages lung adenocarcinoma. Mod Pathol. 2007;20:233–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Borczuk AC, Qian F, Kazeros A, et al. Invasive size is an independent predictor of survival in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33:462–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Witt R. Letter to the Editor. J Thorac Oncol. 2011;6:1451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sawabata N, Miyaoka E, Asamura H, et al. Japanese lung cancer registry study of 11,663 surgical cases in 2004: demographic and prognosis changes over decade. J Thorac Oncol. 2011;6:1229–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Takizawa T, Terashima M, Koike T, et al. Lymph node metastasis in small peripheral adenocarcinoma of the lung. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1998;116:276–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Konaka C, Ikeda N, Hiyoshi T, et al. Peripheral non-small lung cancers 2.0 cm or less in diameter: proposed criteria for limited pulmonary resection based upon clinicopathological presentation. Lung Cancer. 1998;21:185–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Warren W, Faber LP. Segmentectomy versus lobectomy in patients with stage I pulmonary carcinoma: five-year survival and patterns of intrathoracic recurrence. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1994;107:1087–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Malassez L. Examen histologique d’un cas de cancer encephaloide du poumon (Epithelioma). Arch Physiol Norm Pathol. 1876;3:352–72.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Musser JH. Primary cancer of the lung. Univ Penn Bull. 1903;16:289–96.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sweany HC. A so-called alveolar cell cancer of the lung. Arch Pathol. 1935;19:203–7.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Casilli AR, White HJ. Rare forms of primary malignant lung tumors. Am J Clin Pathol. 1940;10:623–41.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Geever KT. Alveolar cell tumor of the human lung. Arch Pathol. 1942;33:551–69.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Herbut PA. Bronchiolar origin of “alveolar cell tumor” of the lung. Am J Pathol. 1944;20:911–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wood DA, Pierson PH. Pulmonary alveolar adenomatosis in man. Am Rev Tuberc. 1945;51:205–23.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ikeda K. Alveolar cell carcinoma of the lung. Am J Clin Pathol. 1945;15:50–63.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Osserman KE, Neuhof H. Mucocellular papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung. J Thorac Surg. 1946;15:272–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Drymalski GW, Thompson R, Sweany HC. Pulmonary adenomatosis. Am J Pathol. 1948;20:1083–93.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dela Rue NC, Graham EA. Alveolar cell carcinoma of the lung (pulmonary adenomatosis, jaagsiekte?). J Thorac Surg. 1948;18:237–51.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Liebow AA. Bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. Adv Intern Med. 1960;10:329–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Carter D, Eggleston JC, editors. Tumors of the lower respiratory tract, Fascicle 17, Second series. Bethesda: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1980. p. 127Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Colby TV, Koss MN, Travis WD, editors. Tumors of the lower respiratory tract. Atlas of tumor pathology, Fascicle #13. Washington, D.C.: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1995. p. 203.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Travis WD, Colby TV, Corrin B, et al. Histological typing of lung and pleural tumours. World Health Organization, 3rd ed. Berlin/New York: Springer; 1999. p. 36Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Travis WD, Brambilla E, Muller-Hermelink K, Harris CC, editors. Pathology and genetics of the tumours of the lung, pleura, thymus, and heart. World Health Organization classification of tumors. Lyon: IARC Press; 2004. p.38Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Overholt RH, Meissner WA, Delmonico E. Favorable bronchiolar carcinoma. Chest. 1955;27:403–13.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Belgrad R, Good A, Woolner LB. Alveolar-cell carcinoma (terminal bronchiolar carcinoma): a study of surgically excised tumors with special emphasis on localized lesions. Radiology. 1962;79:789–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Munell ER, Lawson RC, Keller DF. Solitary bronchiolar (alveolar cell) carcinoma of the lung. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1966;52:261–70.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Watson I, Farpour A. Terminal bronchiolar or “alveolar cell” cancer of the lung: two hundred sixty-five cases. Cancer. 1966;19:776–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rosenblatt MB, Lisa JR, Collier F. Primary and metastatic bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. Chest. 1967;52:147–52.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bennett DE, Sasser WF. Bronchiolar carcinoma: a valid clinicopathologic entity? A study of 30 cases. Cancer. 1969;24:876–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Delarue NC, Anderson W, Sanders D, Starr J. Bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma: a reappraisal after 24 years. Cancer. 1972;29:90–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Marco M, Galy P. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: clinicopathologic relationships, natural history, and prognosis in 29 cases. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1973;107:621–9.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Schraunagel D, Peloquin A, Pare JAP, Wang NS. Differentiating bronchioloalveolar carcinoma from adenocarcinoma. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1982;125:74–9.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Singh G, Katyal SL. Bronchioloalveolar carcinomas: a heterogeneous group. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1982;125:183.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Singh G, Katyal SL, Torikata C. Carcinoma of type II pneumocytes: immunodiagnosis of a subtype of “bronchioloalveolar carcinomas”. Am J Pathol. 1981;102:195–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dermer GB. Origin of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and peripheral bronchial adenocarcinoma. Cancer. 1982;49:881–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Manning JT, Spjut HJ, Tsechen JA. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: the significance of two histopathologic types. Cancer. 1984;54:525–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Clayton F. Bronchiloalveolar carcinomas. Cell types, patterns of growth, and prognostic correlates. Cancer. 1986;57:1555–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Thomas JJ, Tullett WM, Stack BHR. Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma: a 21-year retrospective study of cases at the Western Infirmary, Glasgow. Br J Dis Chest. 1985;79:132–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Elson CE, Moore SP, Johnston WW. Morphologic and immunohistochemical studies of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma at Duke University Medical Center, 1968–1986. Anal Quant Cytol Histol. 1989;11:261–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Daly RC, Trastek VF, Pairolero PC, et al. Bronchoalveolar carcinoma: factors affecting survival. Ann Thorac Surg. 1991;51:368–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Feldman ER, Eagan RT, Schaid DJ. Metastatic bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung: comparison of clinical manifestations, chemotherapeutic responses, and prognosis. Mayo Clin Proc. 1992;67:27–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Breathnach OS, Ishibe N, Williams J, et al. Clinical features of patients with stage IIIb and IV bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung. Cancer. 1999;86:1165–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hsu CP, Chen CY, Hsu NY. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1995;110:374–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fujimoto N, Segawa Y, Takigawa N, et al. Clinical investigation of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of 53 patients in a single institution. Anticancer Res. 1999;19:1369–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Barkley JE, Green MR. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 1996;14:2377–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Goodwin LO, Mason JM, Hajdu SI. Gene expression patterns of paired bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and benign lung tissue. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2001;31:369–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Read WL, Page NC, Tierney RM, et al. The epidemiology of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma over the last two decades: analysis of the SEER database. Lung Cancer. 2004;45:137–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Raz DJ, Jablons DM. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is not associated with younger age at diagnosis: an analysis of the SEER database. J Thorac Oncol. 2006;1:339–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ohye RG, Cohen DM, Caldwell S, Qualman SJ. Pediatric bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: a favorable pediatric malignancy? J Pediatr Surg. 1998;33:730–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Breathnach OS, Kwiatowski DJ, Finkelstein DM, et al. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung: recurrences and survival in patients with stage I disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2001;121:42–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Rena O, Papalia E, Ruffini E, et al. Stage I pure bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: recurrences, survival and comparison with adenocarcinoma. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2003;23:409–14.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gaeta M, Blandino A, Pergolizzi S, et al. Patterns of recurrence of bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma after surgical resection: a ­radiological, histological, and immunohistochemical study. Lung Cancer. 2003;42:319–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ebright MI, Zakoski MF, Martin J, et al. Clinical pattern and pathologic stage but not histologic features predict outcome for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;74:1640–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Travis WD, Garg K, Franklin WA, et al. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma: the clinical importance and research relevance of the 2004 World Health Organization pathologic criteria. J Thorac Oncol. 2006;1:S13–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Noguchi M, Morikawa A, Kawasaki M, et al. Small adenocarcinoma of the lung: histologic characteristics and prognosis. Cancer. 1995;75:2844–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Zell JA, Ou SHI, Ziogas A, Culver HA. Epidemiology of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: improvement in survival after release of the 1999 WHO classification of lung tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:8396–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Zell JA, Ou SHI, Ziogas A, Culver HA. Validation of the proposed international association for the study of lung cancer non-small cell lung cancer staging system revisions for advanced bronchioloalveolar carcinoma using data from the California Cancer Registry. J Thorac Oncol. 2007;2:1078–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Grover FL, Piantadosi S. Recurrence and survival following resection of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung – The Lung Cancer Study Group experience. Ann Surg. 1989;209:779–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Garfield DH, Cadranel JL, Wislez M, et al. The bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and peripheral adenocarcinoma spectrum of diseases. J Thorac Oncol. 2006;1:344–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Damhuis RAM, Schutte PR, Varin OCM, et al. Poor results after surgery for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2006;32:573–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sidhu SG, Wieczorek R, Cassai ND, Zhu CC. The concept of bronchioloalveolar cell adenocarcinoma: redefinition, a critique of the 1999 WHO classification, and an ultrastructural analysis of 155 cases. Int J Surg Pathol. 2003;11:89–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hajdu SI. A note from history: the story of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2005;35:336–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Noguchi M, Kodama T, Shimosato Y, et al. Papillary adenoma of type 2 pneumocytes. Am J Surg Pathol. 1986;10:134–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Koga T, Hashimoto S, Sugio K, et al. Lung adenocarcinoma with bronchioloalveolar component is frequently associated with foci of high-grade atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. Am J Clin Pathol. 2002;117:464–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Travis WD, Linnoila RI, Horowitz M, et al. Pulmonary nodules resembling bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in adolescent cancer patients. Mod Pathol. 1988;1:372–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Morandi L, Asioli S, Cavazza A, et al. Genetic relationship among atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the lung. Lung Cancer. 2007;56:35–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Solis LM, Behrens C, Raso MG, Lin HY, Kadara H, Yuan P, et al. Histologic patterns and molecular characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma associated with clinical outcome. Cancer. 2011;118:2889–99. doi: 10.1002/cncr.26584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ogata T, Endo K. Clara cell granules of peripheral lung cancers. Cancer. 1984;54:1635–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hirata H, Noguchi M, Shimosato Y, et al. Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of bronchial gland cell type adenocarcinoma of the lung. Am J Clin Pathol. 1990;93:20–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Edwards CW. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma: review of 106 cases and proposed new classification. J Clin Pathol. 1987;40:125–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Miller RA, Nelems B, Evans KG, et al. Glandular neoplasia of the lung: a proposed analogy to colonic tumors. Cancer. 1988;61:1009–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Dabbs DJ, Landreneau RJ, Liu Y, et al. Detection of estrogen receptors by immunohistochemistry in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;73:403–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Siami K, McCluggage G, Ordonez NG, et al. Thyroid transcription factor-1 expression in endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol. 2007;31:1759–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Moran CA. Mucin-rich tumors of the lung. Adv Anat Pathol. 1995;2:299–305.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kragel PJ, Devaney KO, Meth BM, Linnoila I, Frierson HF, Travis WD. Mucinous cystadenoma of the lung: a report of two cases with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1990;114:1053–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Traub B. Mucinous cystadenoma of the lung [letter]. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1991;115:740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Dixon AY, Moran JF, Wesselius LJ, McGregor DH. Pulmonary mucinous cystic tumor: case report with review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol. 1993;17:722–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Higashima M, Doi O, Kodama K, Yokouchi H, Tateishi R. Cystic mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung: two cases of cystic variant of mucinous-producing lug adenocarcinoma. Chest. 1992;101:763–6.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Davison AM, Lowe JW, Da Costa P. Adenocarcinoma arising in a mucinous cystadenoma of the lung. Thorax. 1992;47:129–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Graeme-Cook F, Mark EJ. Pulmonary mucinous cystic tumors of borderline malignancy. Hum Pathol. 1991;22:185–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Moran CA, Hochholzer L, Fishback N, Koss MN. Mucinous (so-called colloid) carcinoma of the lung. Mod Pathol. 1992;5:634–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Silver S, Askin FB. True papillary carcinoma of the lung. A distinct clinicopathologic entity. Am J Surg Pathol. 1997;21:43–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Zhang J, Tomizawa Y, Yanagitani N, et al. Papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung is a more advanced adenocarcinoma than bronchioloalveolar carcinoma that is composed of two distinct histological subtypes. Pathol Int. 2005;55:619–25.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Aida S, Shimazaki H, Sato K, et al. Prognostic analysis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma subclassification with special consideration of papillary and bronchioloalveolar types. Histopathology. 2004;45:466–76.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Moran CA, Jagirdar J, Suster S. Papillary lung adenocarcinoma with prominent “morular” component. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;122:106–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Amin M, Tamboli P, Merchant SH, et al. Micropapillary component in lung adenocarcinoma: a distinctive histologic feature with possible prognostic significance. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26:358–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Makimoto Y, Nabeshima K, Iwasaki H, et al. Micropapillary pattern: a distinctive pathological marker to subclassify tumours with significantly poor prognosis within small peripheral lung adenocarcinoma (< 20 mm) with mixed bronchioloalveolar and invasive subtypes (Noguchi’s type C tumours). Histopathology. 2005;46:677–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kuroda N, Hamaguchi N, Takeuchi E, et al. Lung adenocarcinoma with micropapillary pattern: a clinicopathological study of 25 cases. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand Suppl. 2006;114:381–5.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Miyoshi T, Satoh Y, Okumura S, et al. Early-stage lung adenocarcinomas with micropapillary pattern, a distinct pathologic marker for a significantly poor prognosis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2003;27:101–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hoshi R, Tsuzuku M, Horai T, et al. Micropapillary clusters in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. A distinct cytologic sign of significantly poor prognosis. Cancer Cytopathol. 2004;102:81–6.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kish JK, Ro JY, Ayala AG, McMurtrey MJ. Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung with signet-ring cells: a histochemical comparison with signet ring cell carcinomas of other sites. Hum Pathol. 1989;20:1097–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sarma EP. Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the lung [letter to the editor]. Hum Pathol. 1990;21:459–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Hayashi H, Kitamura H, Nakatani Y, et al. Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the lung: histochemical and immunohistochemical characterization. Hum Pathol. 1999;30:378–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Castro CY, Moran CA, Flieder DG, Suster S. Primary signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the lung: a clinicopathological study of 15 cases. Histopathology. 2001;39:397–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Steinhauer JR, Moran CA, Suster S. Secretory endometrioid-like adenocarcinoma of the lung. Histopathology. 2005;47:219–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Ishikura H, Kanda M, Ito M, et al. Hepatoid adenocarcinoma: a distinctive histological subtype of alpha-fetoprotein-producing lung carcinoma. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol. 1990;417:73–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Arnould L, Drouot F, Fargeot P, et al. Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the lung. Am J Surg Pathol. 1997;43:654–61.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Nasu M, Soma T, Fukushima H, et al. Hepatoid carcinoma of the lung with production of a-fetoprotein and abnormal prothrombin: an autopsy case report. Mod Pathol. 1997;10:1054–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Carlinfante G, Pia-Foshini M, Pasquinelli G, et al. Hepatoid carcinoma of the lung: a case report with immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and in situ hybridization findings. Histopathology. 2000;37:88–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Yasunami R, Hashimoto Z, Ogura T, et al. Primary lung cancer producing alpha-fetoprotein: a case report. Cancer. 1981;47:926–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Miyake M, Ito M, Taki T, et al. A case report of two patients with pulmonary lung cancer secreting AFP. Nippon Kyobu Geka Gakkai Zasshi. 1986;34:914–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Hayashi Y, Takanashi Y, Ohsawa H, et al. Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the lung. Lung Cancer. 2002;38:211–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Solis LM, Raso GM, Behrens C, et al. Primary oncocytic adenocarcinoma of the lung: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular biologic analysis of 16 cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 2010;133:133–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Sherwin RP, Laforret EG, Strieder JW. Exophytic endobronchial carcinoma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1962;43:716–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Dulmet-Brender E, Jaubert F, Huchon G. Exophytic endobronchial epidermoid carcinoma. Cancer. 1986;57:1358–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Cooper L, Hagenschneider JK, Banky S, Rosado-de-Christenson ML, Suster S. Papillary endobronchial squamous cell carcinoma. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2005;9:284–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Laubscher F. Solitary squamous cell papilloma of bronchial origin. Am J Clin Pathol. 1969;52:599–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Spencer H, Dail DH, Arneaud J. Non-invasive bronchial epithelial papillary tumors. Cancer. 1980;45:1486–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Trillo A, Guha A. Solitary condylomatous papilloma of the bronchus. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1988;112:731–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Al-Saleem T, Peale AR, Norris CM. Multiple papillomatosis of the lower respiratory tract: clinical and pathologic study of eleven cases. Cancer. 1968;6:1173–84.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Suster S, Huszar M, Herczeg E. Spindle cell squamous carcinoma of the lung: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of a case. Histopathology. 1987;11:871–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Wang BY, Gill J, Kaufman D, et al. P63 in primary pulmonary epithelium, pulmonary squamous neoplasms, and other pulmonary tumors. Hum Pathol. 2002;33:921–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Weissferdt A, Moran CA. Microscystic squamous cell carcinoma: a clinicopathological correlation of 3 cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 2011;136:436–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Pelosi G, Pasini F, Stenholm CO, et al. P63 immunoreactivity in lung cancer: yet another player in the development of squamous cell carcinomas? J Pathol. 2002;198:100–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Pelosi G, Barisella M, Pasini F, et al. CD117 immunoreactivity in stage I adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: relevance to prognosis in a subset of adenocarcinoma patients. Mod Pathol. 2004;17:711–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Yoshino I, Osoegawa A, Yohena T, et al. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in non-small cell lung cancer: difference between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Respir Med. 2005;99:308–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Chujo M, Noguchi T, Miura T, et al. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis detected frequent overrepresentation of chromosome 3q in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Lung Cancer. 2002;38:23–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Churg A. The fine structure of large cell undifferentiated carcinoma of the lung. Hum Pathol. 1978;9(2):143–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Yesner R. Large cell carcinoma of the lung. Semin Diagn Pathol. 1985;2(4):255–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Albain KS, Ture LD, Golomb HM, et al. Large cell carcinoma of the lung: ultrastructural differentiation and clinicopathologic correlations. Cancer. 1985;56:1618–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Kodama T, Shimosato Y, Koide T, et al. Large cell carcinoma of the lung – ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 1985;15:431–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Leung CS, Morava-Protzner I. Large cell carcinoma of the lung with osteoclast-like giant cells. Histopathology. 1998;32:482–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Masse SR, Dawson DT, Khaliq A. Ectopic gonadotropin in a case of anaplastic large-cell carcinoma of the lung. CMAJ. 1974;111:253–5.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Zhong D, Guo L, Aguirre I, et al. LKB1 mutation in large cell carcinoma of the lung. Lung Cancer. 2006;53:285–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Fitzgibbons PL, Kern WH. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung: a clinical and pathologic study of seven cases. Hum Pathol. 1985;16:463–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Naunheim KS, Taylor JR, Skosey C, et al. Adenosquamous lung carcinoma: clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 1987;44:462–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Sridhar KS, Raub WA, Duncan RC, Hilsenbeck S. The increasing recognition of adenosquamous lung carcinoma (1977–1986). Am J Clin Oncol. 1992;15:356–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Sridhar KS, Bounassi MJ, Raub W, Richman SP. Clinical features of adenosquamous lung carcinoma in 127 patients. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1990;142:19–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Takamori S, Noguchi M, Morinaga S, et al. Clinicopathologic characteristics of adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. Cancer. 1991;67:649–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Teruyoshi I, Kaneko S, Yokoyama H, et al. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features. Am J Clin Pathol. 1992;97:678–85.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Mnaymneh LG, Raub WA, Sridhar KS, et al. The accuracy of the histological classification of lung carcinoma and its reproducibility: a study of 75 archival cases of adenosquamous carcinoma. Cancer Invest. 1993;11:641–51.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Hofmann HS, Knolle J, Neef H. The adenosquamous lung carcinoma: clinical and pathological characteristics. J Cardiovasc Surg. 1994;35:543–7.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Shimizu J, Oda M, Hayashi Y, et al. A clinicopathologic study of resected cases of adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. Chest. 1996;109:989–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Hsia JY, Chen CY, Hsu CP, et al. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung: surgical results compared with squamous cell and adenocarcinoma. Scand Cardiovasc J. 1998;33:29–32.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Nakagawa K, Yasumitu T, Fukuhara K, et al. Poor prognosis after lung resection for patients with adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;75:1740–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Gawrychowski J, Brulinski K, Malinowski E, Papla B. Prognosis and survival after radical resection of primary adenosquamous lung carcinoma. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2005;27:686–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Ylagan LR, Scholes J, Demopoulos R. CD44: a marker of squamous differentiation in adenosquamous neoplasms. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2000;124:212–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Kanazawa H, Ebina M, Ino-Oka N, et al. Transition from squamous cell carcinoma to adenocarcinoma in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. Am J Pathol. 2000;156:1289–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Kang SM, Kang HJ, Shin JH, et al. Identical epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in adenocarcinomatous and squamous cell carcinomatous components of adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. Cancer. 2007;109:581–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Liang JC, Kurzrock R, Gutterman JU, Gallick GE. Trisomy 12 correlates with elevated expression of p21ras in a human adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1986;23:183–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Humphrey P, Scroggs MW, Roggli V, Shelburne JD. Pulmonary carcinomas with sarcomatoid element: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis. Hum Pathol. 1988;19:155–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Matsui K, Kitagawa M. Spindle cell carcinoma of the lung: a clinicopathologic study of three cases. Cancer. 1991;67:2361–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Ro JY, Chen JL, Lee JS, et al. Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies of 14 cases. Cancer. 1992;69:376–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Fishback NF, Travis WD, Moran CA, et al. Pleomorphic (spindle/giant cell) carcinoma of the lung: a clinicopathologic correlation of 78 cases. Cancer. 1994;73:2936–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Razzuk MA, Urschel HC, Albers JE, et al. Pulmonary giant cell carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 1976;21:540–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Wang NS, Seemayer TA, Ahmed MN, Knaack J. Giant cell carcinoma of the lung: a light and electron microscopic study. Hum Pathol. 1976;7:3–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Bendel WL, Ishak KG. Giant cell carcinoma of the lung: report of two cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 1961;35:435–40.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Nash AD, Stout AP. Giant cell carcinoma of the lung: report of 5 cases. Cancer. 1958;11:369–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Herman DL, Bullock WK, Waken JK. Giant cell adenocarcinoma of the lug. Cancer. 1966;19:1337–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Hellstrom HR, Fisher ER. Giant cell carcinoma of the lung. Cancer. 1963;16:1080–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Shin M, Jackson LK, Shelton RW, Greene RE. Giant cell carcinoma of the lung: clinical and roentgenographic manifestations. Chest. 1986;89:366–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Ginsberg SS, Buzaid AC, Stern H, Carter D. Giant cell carcinoma of the lung. Cancer. 1992;70:606–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Addis BJ, Dewar A, Thurlow NP. Giant cell carcinoma of the lung – immunohistochemical and ultrastructural evidence of dedifferentiation. J Pathol. 1988;155:231–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Przygodzki RM, Koss MN, Moran CA, et al. Pleomorphic (giant and spindle cell) carcinoma is genetically distinct from adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma by K-ras-2 and p53 analysis. Am J Clin Pathol. 1996;106:487–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Rubenchik I, Dardick I, Auger M. Cytopathology and ultrastructure of primary rhabdoid tumor of the lung. Ultrastruct Pathol. 1996;20:355–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Cavazza A, Colby TV, Tsokos M, et al. Lung tumors with rhabdoid phenotype. Am J Clin Pathol. 1996;105:182–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Chetty R, Bhana B, Batitang S, Govender D. Lung carcinomas composed of rhabdoid cells. Eur J Surg Oncol. 1997;23:432–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Miyagi I, Tsuhako K, Kinjo T, et al. Rhabdoid tumour of the lung is a dedifferentiated phenotype of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Histopathology. 2000;37:37–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Shimazaki H, Aida S, Sato M, et al. Lung carcinoma with rhabdoid cells: a clinicopathological study and survival analysis of 14 cases. Histopathology. 2001;38:425–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Kaneko T, Honda T, Fukushima M, et al. Large cell carcinoma of the lung with rhabdoid phenotype. Pathol Int. 2002;52:643–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Hiroshima K, Shibuya K, Shimamura F, et al. Pulmonary large cell carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype. Ultrastruct Pathol. 2003;27:55–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Tamboli P, Tropani TH, Amin MB, et al. Carcinoma of lung with rhabdoid features. Hum Pathol. 2004;35:8–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Yilmazbayhan D, Ates LE, Dilege S, et al. Pulmonary large cell carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype. Ann Diag Pathol. 2005;9:223–6.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Falconieri G, Moran CA, Pizzolitto S, et al. Intrathoracic rhabdoid carcinoma: a clinicopathological immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of 6 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2005;9:279–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Wick MR, Ritter JH, Dehner LP. Malignant rhabdoid tumors: a clinicopathologic review and conceptual discussion. Semin Diagn Pathol. 1995;12:233–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Begin LR, Eskandari J, Joncas J, Panasci L. Epstein-Barr virus related lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung. J Surg Oncol. 1987;36:280–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Han A, Xiong M, Gu Y, et al. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung with a better prognosis: a clinicopathologic study of 32 cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 2001;115:841–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Chan JKC, Hui PK, Tsang WYW, et al. Primary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung: a clinicopathologic study of 11 cases. Cancer. 1995;76:413–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Butler AE, Colby TV, Weiss L, Lombard C. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung. Am J Surg Pathol. 1989;13:632–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Ho JC, Wong MP, Wong MK, et al. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung: experience with ten cases. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2004;8:890–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Guerrero A, Laflamme M, Agoff SN, et al. Primary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung. Can Respir J. 2001;8:431–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Frank MW, Shields TW, Joob AW, et al. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997;64:1162–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Wockel W, Hofler HH, Popper HH, Morresi A. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung. Pathol Res Pract. 1995;191:1170–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Miller B, Montgomery C, Watne A, et al. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung. J Surg Oncol. 1991;48:62–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Curcio LD, Cohen JS, Grannis FW, et al. Primary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung in a child: report of an Epstein-Barr virus-related neoplasm. Chest. 1997;111:250–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Gal AA, Unger ER, Koss MN, Yen BST. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus in lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung. Mod Pathol. 1991;4:264–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Pittaluga S, Wong MP, Chung LP, Loke SL. Clonal Epstein-Bar virus in lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung. Am J Surg Pathol. 1993;17:678–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Higashiyama M, Doi O, Kodama K, et al. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung: analysis of two cases for Epstein-Barr virus infection. Hum Pathol. 1995;26:1278–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Chen FF, Yan JJ, Lai WW, et al. Epstein-Barr virus-associated nonsmall cell lung carcinoma: undifferentiated “lymphoepithelioma-like” carcinoma as a distinct entity with better prognosis. Cancer. 1998;82:2334–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Castro CY, Ostrowski ML, Barrios R, et al. Relationship between Epstein-Barr virus and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung: a clinicopathologic study of 6 cases and review of the literature. Hum Pathol. 2001;32:863–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Chang YL, Wu CT, Shih JY, Lee YC. New aspects in clinicopathologic and oncogene studies of 23 pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26:715–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annikka Weissferdt
    • 1
  • Cesar A. Moran
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations