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When the Brain Meets the Eye: Tracking Object Motion

  • Guillaume S. Masson
  • Anna Montagnini
  • Uwe J. Ilg
Chapter

Abstract

To accurately track a moving object of interest with appropriate smooth eye movements, the brain needs to reconstruct a single velocity vector describing the global motion of this object. Because of the aperture problem (see Chap. 1), the visual system must integrate piecewise local information from either elongated edges and contours or particular features such as corners and texture elements. Here, we show that investigating smooth eye movements unveil several dynamical properties of this visual motion integration stage. Signals are weighted according to their uncertainties. The integration is highly dynamical - eye movements being always launched first in the simplest, linear (vector sum) prediction. Tracking trajectories are then progressively adjusted to match the object trajectory after 200 ms of pursuit. Such strategy is immune to higher factors such as prediction about incoming 2D target trajectory. On the contrary, mixing retinal and extra-retinal signals become important later during the pursuit to accommodate partial or total object motion occlusion for instance. We propose a framework computing and representing object motion through two recurrent loops (V1-MT and MST-FEF, respectively), with area MST playing the role of gear. Such architecture would accommodate two important constraints of motor behavior: quick reaction to a new visual event and utilization of extra-retinal information to smooth out transient changes in the image such as those occurring when an object moves in a crowded environment.

Keywords

Smooth Pursuit Pursuit Initiation Motion Integration Extraretinal Signal Aperture Problem 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

GM is supported by the CNRS, the Agence Nationale de la Recherche and the European Union (FACETS, FP6-2004-IST-FETPI-15879). AM is supported by a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship (GEMME, IEF-025213). We thank Lee Stone, Pascal Mamassian and Philippe Lefèvre for fruitful discussions about the ideas presented in the Chapter.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guillaume S. Masson
    • 1
  • Anna Montagnini
  • Uwe J. Ilg
  1. 1.Institut de Neurosciences Cogntiives de la MéditerranéeCNRS and Université de la MéditerranéeMarseilleFrance

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