Cancer Stem Cells and Oral Cavity Cancer Metastasis
Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is a common malignancy with a high propensity for the development of metastasis. Even early stage oral cavity tumors are frequently associated with metastasis to regional lymph nodes. Cancer stem cells have recently been isolated from head and neck squamous cell cancer and represent the critical population of cancer cells responsible for primary tumor growth. Cancer stem cells also likely represent the population of cancer cells responsible for resistance to therapy and regional and distant metastasis. The identification of this critical subpopulation of cancer cells will increase our ability to understand the mechanisms that which underlie the development of metastasis in head and neck cancer and holds promise for the development of new and more effective therapies for this devastating disease.
KeywordsCancer Stem Cell Adult Stem Cell Stem Cell Niche Normal Stem Cell Stem Cell Maintenance
Victoria Prince for help in creating the Metastasis Model figure.
- Chambers AF, Naumov GN, Varghese HJ, Nadkarni KV, MacDonald IC, Groom AC (2001) Critical steps in hematogenous metastasis: an overview. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 10:243–255, viiGoogle Scholar
- Chiba T, Kita K, Zheng YW et al (2006) Side population purified from hepatocellular carcinoma cells harbors cancer stem cell-like properties. Hepatology 44:240–251Google Scholar
- Clarke M, Fuller M (2006) Stem cells and cancer: two faces of Eve. Cell 124:1111–1115Google Scholar
- Dalerba P, Dylla SJ, Park IK, Liu R, Wang X, Cho RW, Hoey T, Gurney A, Huang EH, Simeone DM, Shelton AA, Parmiani G, Castelli C, Clarke MF (2007) Phenotypic characterization of human colorectal cancer stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:10158–10163Google Scholar
- Fidler IJ (2001) Seed and soil revisited: contribution of the organ microenvironment to cancer metastasis. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 10:257–269, vii–viiiiGoogle Scholar
- Katoh M, Katoh M (2007) WNT signaling pathway and stem cell signaling network. Clin Cancer Res 13:4042–4045Google Scholar
- Prince M, Sivanandan R, Kaczorowski A, Wolf GT, Kaplan MJ, Dalerba P, Weissman IL, Clarke MF, Ailles LE (2007) Identification of a subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell properties in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:973–978Google Scholar
- Sneddon JB, Zhen HH, Montgomery K, van de Rijn M, Tward AD, West R, Gladstone H, Chang HY, Morganroth GS, Oro AE et al (2006) Bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is widely expressed by cancer-associated stromal cells and can promote tumor cell proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:14842–14847CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weigelt B, Peterse JL, van ‘t Veer LJ (2005) Breast cancer metastasis: markers and models. Nat Rev Cancer 5:591–602Google Scholar