• Arnel R. Hallauer
  • Marcelo J. Carena
  • J. B. Miranda Filho
Part of the Handbook of Plant Breeding book series (HBPB, volume 6)


Maize (Zea mays L.)-directed evolution through breeding started when humans realized the potential of the species for food, feed, fiber, and fuel. Although the ancestral pedigree of maize has not been fully resolved yet, the early maize breeders certainly played an important role in domesticating and developing the species as we know it today. Maize, however, is known to be one of the few major cultivated species indigenous to the Western Hemisphere about 7,000–10,000 years ago (Wilkes, 2004).


Inbred Line Recurrent Selection Maize Breeding North Dakota Reciprocal Recurrent Selection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Anderson, E., and W. L. Brown. 1952. The history of the common maize varieties of the United States corn belt. Agric. Hist. 26:2–8.Google Scholar
  2. Allard, R. W. 1960. Principles of Plant Breeding. Wiley, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  3. Bauman, L. F. 1981. Review of methods used by breeders to develop superior corn inbreds. Annu. Corn Sorghum Res. Conf Proc. 36:199–208.Google Scholar
  4. Barata, C., and M. J. Carena. 2006. Classification of North Dakota maize inbred lines into heterotic groups based on molecular and testcross data. Euphytica 151:339–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beal, W. J. 1880. Indian Corn Rep. Mich. Board Agric. 19:279–89.Google Scholar
  6. Bernardo, R. 1991. Correlation between testcross performance of lines at early and late selfing generations. Theor. Appl. Gen. 82:17–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bernardo, R. 2002. Breeding for Quantitative Traits in Plants. Stemma Press, Woodbury, MN.Google Scholar
  8. Bernardo, R. 2006. Breeding for Quantitative Traits in Plants. Stemma Press, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  9. Bowman, M. L., and B. W. Crossley. 1908. Corn. Kenyon, Des Moines, IA.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, W. L. 1950. The origin of Corn Belt maize. J. New York Bot. Gard. 51:242–55.Google Scholar
  11. Carena, M. J. 2005a. Maize commercial hybrids compared to improved population hybrids for grain yield and agronomic performance. Euphytica 141:201–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carena, M. J. 2005b. Registration of NDSAB(MER-FS)C13 maize germplasm. Crop Sci. 45:1670–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carena, M. J., and A. R. Hallauer. 2001. Response to inbred progeny recurrent selection in leaming and midland yellow dent populations. Maydica 46:1–10.Google Scholar
  14. Carena, M. J., and D. W. Wanner. 2003. Registration of ND2000 inbred line of maize. Crop Sci. 43:1568–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carena, M. J., and D. W. Wanner. 2009. Development of genetically broad-based inbred lines of maize for early-maturing (70–80 RM) hybrids. J. Plant Reg. 3:107–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carena, M. J., C. Eno, and D. W. Wanner. 2008. Registration of NDBS11(FR-M)C3, NDBS1011, and NDBSK(HI-M)C3 maize germplasms. J. Plant Reg. 2:132–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carena, M. J., D. W. Wanner, and H. Z. Cross. 2003. Registration of ND291 inbred line of maize. Crop Sci. 43:1568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carena, M. J., D. W. Wanner, and J. Yang. 2009a. Linking pre-breeding for local germplasm improvement with cultivar development in maize breeding for short-season hybrids. J. Plant Reg. 4:86–92.Google Scholar
  19. Carena, M. J., L. Pollak, W. Salhuana, and M. Denuc. 2009b. Development of unique lines for early-maturing hybrids: moving GEM germplasm northward and westward. Euphytica 170:87–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carena, M. J., G. Bergman, N. Riveland, E. Eriksmoen, and M. Halvorson. 2009c. Breeding maize for higher yield and quality under drought stress. Maydica 54:287–298.Google Scholar
  21. Chase, S. S. 1949. Monoploid frequencies in a commercial double cross hybrid maize and its component single cross hybrids and inbred lines. Genetics 34:328–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Chase, S. S. 1952a. Production of homozygous diploids of maize from monoploids. Agron. J. 44:263–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chase, S. S. 1952b. Monoploids in maize. In Heterosis, J. W. Gowen, (ed.), pp. 389–99. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA.Google Scholar
  24. Cockerham, C. C. 1961. Implications of genetic variances in a hybrid breeding program. Crop Sci. 1:47–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Compton, W. A., and R. E. Comstock. 1976. More on modified ear-to-row selection. Crop Sci. 16:122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Comstock, R. E., H. F. Robinson, and P. H. Harvey. 1949. A breeding procedure designed to make maximum use of both general and specific combining ability. Agron. J. 41:360–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coors, J. G. 1999. Selection methodology and heterosis. In The Genetics and Exploitation of Heterosis in Crops, J. G. Coors and S. Pandey, (eds.), pp. 225–45. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  28. Crabb, A. R. 1947. The Hybrid Corn Makers: Prophets of Plenty. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ.Google Scholar
  29. Davis, R. L. 1927. Report of the plant breeder. Rep. Puerto Rico Agric. Exp. Stn. 14–15.Google Scholar
  30. Dudley, J. W., and R. H. Moll. 1969. Interpretation and use of estimates of heritability and genetic variances to plant breeding. Crop Sci. 9:257–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Duvick, D. N. 1977. Genetic rates of gain in hybrid maize during the last 40 years. Maydica 22:187–96.Google Scholar
  32. Duvick, D. N. 1981. Genetic rates of gain in hybrid maize during the last 40 years. Maydica 22: 187–96.Google Scholar
  33. East, E. M. 1908. Inbreeding in corn. Connecticut Agric. Exp. Stn. Rep. 1907: 419–28.Google Scholar
  34. Gardner, C. O. 1961. An evaluation of effects of mass selection and seed irradiation with thermal neutrons on yield of corn. Crop Sci. 1:241–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Good, R. L. 1990. Experiences with recurrent selection in a commercial seed company. Annu. Corn Sorghum Res. Conf Proc. 45: 80–92.Google Scholar
  36. Goodman, M. M. 1976. Maize. In Evolution of Crop Plants, N. W. Simmonds, (ed.), pp. 128–36. Longman Group, London.Google Scholar
  37. Goodsell, S. 1961. Male sterility in corn by androgenesis. Crop Sci. 1:227–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hallauer, A. R. 1970. Zygote selection for the development of single-cross hybrids in maize. Adv. Front. Plant Sci. 25:75–81.Google Scholar
  39. Hallauer, A. R. 1985. Compendium of recurrent selection methods and their application. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 3:1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hallauer, A. R. 1987. Breeding systems. In CRC Handbook of Plant Science in Agriculture, I. B. R. Christie, (ed.), pp. 61–87. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  41. Hallauer, A. R. 1992. Use of genetic variation for breeding populations in cross-pollinated species. In Plant Breeding in the 1990s, H. T. Stalker and J. P. Murphy, (eds.), pp. 37–67. CAB Int’l, Wallingford.Google Scholar
  42. Hallauer, A. R. 1999. Conversion of tropical maize germplasm for temperate area use. Ill. Corn Breeders’ Sch. 35:2036.Google Scholar
  43. Hallauer, A. R., and M. J. Carena. 2009. Maize breeding. In Handbook of Plant Breeding: Cereals, M. J. Carena (ed.), pp. 3–98. Springer, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  44. Hallauer, A. R., and S. A. Eberhart. 1970. Reciprocal full-sib selection. Crop Sci. 10:315–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hallauer, A. R., and J. H. Sears. 1973. Changes in quantitative traits associated with inbreeding in a synthetic variety of maize. Crop Sci. 13:327–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hallauer A. R., W. A. Russell, and K. R. Lamkey. 1988. Corn breeding. In Corn and Corn Improvement, 3rd ed., G. F. Sprague and J. W. Dudley, (eds.), pp. 469–564. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  47. Harrington, J. B. 1952. Cereal Breeding Procedures. FAO Paper 28, Rome.Google Scholar
  48. Hayes, H. K. 1956. I saw hybrid corn develop. Annu. Corn Sorghum Res. Conf Proc. 7:48–55.Google Scholar
  49. Hayes, H. K. 1963. A Professor’s Story of Hybrid Corn. Burgess Publishing Company, Minneapolis, MN.Google Scholar
  50. Hayes, H. K., F. R. Immer, and D. C. Smith. 1955. Methods of Plant Breeding. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  51. Hopkins, C. G. 1899.Improvement in the chemical composition of the corn kernel. Ill. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 55:205–40.Google Scholar
  52. Horner, E. S. 1956. Recurrent selection. Annu. Corn Sorghum Res. Conf. Proc. 11:75–79.Google Scholar
  53. Hudson, J. C. 2004. Making the Corn Belt: A Geographical History of Middle-Western Agriculture (Midwestern History & Culture Series). Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN.Google Scholar
  54. Hull, F. H. 1945. Recurrent selection and specific combining ability in corn. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 37: 134–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hyrkas, A. K., and M. J. Carena. 2005. Response to long-term selection in early maturing synthetic varieties. Euphytica 143:43–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jenkins, M. T. 1934. Methods of estimating the performance of double crosses in corn. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 26:199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jenkins, M. T. 1935. The effect of inbreeding and of selection within inbred lines of maize upon the hybrids made after successive generations of selfing. Iowa State J. Sci. 9:429–50.Google Scholar
  58. Jenkins, M. T. 1940. The segregation of genes affecting yield of grain in maize. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 32: 55–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jenkins, M. T., and A. M. Brunson. 1932. Methods of testing inbred lines of maize in crossbred combinations. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 24:523–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jones, D. F. 1918. The effects of inbreeding and crossbreeding upon development. Conn. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 207:5–100.Google Scholar
  61. Jones, D. F., and W. R. Singleton. 1934. Crossed sweet corn. Conn. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 361:489–536.Google Scholar
  62. Kermicle, J. L. 1969. Androgenesis conditioned by a mutation in maize. Science 166:1422–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Leaming, J. S. 1883. Corn and Its Culture. J. Steam Printing, Wilmington, OH.Google Scholar
  64. Lloyd, W. A. 1911. J. S. Leaming and his corn. Columbus Annu. Rep. 87–103.Google Scholar
  65. Longin, C. F. H., H. F. Utz, A. E. Melchinger, and J. C. Reif. 2006. Hybrid maize breeding with doubled haploids: comparison between selection criteria. Acta Agron. Hung. 54:343–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lonnquist, J. H. 1952. Recurrent selection. Annu. Corn Sorghum Res. Conf. Proc. 7:20–32.Google Scholar
  67. Lonnquist, J. H. 1964. Modification of the ear-to-row procedures for the improvement of maize populations. Crop Sci. 4:227–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Melani, M. D., and M. J. Carena. 2005. Alternative heterotic patterns for the northern corn belt. Crop Sci. 45:2186–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Moll, R. H., and C. W. Stuber. 1974. Quantitative genetics: empirical results relevant to plant breeding. Adv. Agron. 26:277–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Olson, P. J., and H. L. Walster. 1932. Corn in its northern home. North Dakota Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 257.Google Scholar
  71. Olson, P. J., H. L. Walster, and T. H. Hooper. 1927. Corn for North Dakota. North Dakota Agric. Exp. Station Bull. 207:No page number needed.Google Scholar
  72. Pollak, L. M., 2003. The history and success of the public-private project on germplasm enhancement of maize (GEM). Adv. Agron. 78:45–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Richey, F. D. 1927. The convergent improvement of selfed lines of corn. Am. Nat. 61:430–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Russell, W. A. 1972. Registration of B70 and B73 parental lines of maize. Crop Sci. 12:721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Russell, W. A., and S. A. Eberhart. 1975. Hybrid performance of selected maize lines from reciprocal recurrent and testcross selection programs. Crop Sci. 15:1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Seitz, G. 2005. The use of doubled haploids in corn breeding. Proc. Ill. Corn Breeders’ School 41:1–7.Google Scholar
  77. Sezegen, B., and M. J. Carena. 2009. Divergent recurrent selection for cold tolerance in two improved maize populations. Euphytica 167:237–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Shull, G. H. 1908. The composition of a field of maize. Am. Breeders’ Assoc. Rep. 4:296–301.Google Scholar
  79. Shull, G. H. 1909. A pure-line method of corn breeding. Am. Breeders’ Assoc. Rep. 5:51–9.Google Scholar
  80. Shull, G. H. 1910. Hybridization methods in corn breeding. Am. Breed. Mag. 1:98–107.Google Scholar
  81. Silva, J. C., and A. R. Hallauer. 1975. Estimation of epistatic variance in Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic maize. J. Hered. 66:290–96.Google Scholar
  82. Smith, S. 2007. Pedigree background changes in U.S. hybrid maize between 1980 and 2004. Crop Sci. 47:1914–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Spitko, T., L. Sagi, J. Printer, L. C. Marton, and B. Barnabas. 2006. Haploid regeneration aptitude of maize (Zea mays L.) lines of various origin and of their hybrids. Maydica 34:537–42.Google Scholar
  84. Sprague, G. F. 1946. Early testing of inbred lines of corn. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 38:108–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sprague, G. F. 1955. Corn breeding. In Corn and Corn Improvement, G. F. Sprague, (ed.), pp. 221–92. Academic, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  86. Sprague, G. F., and S. A. Eberhart. 1977. Corn breeding. In Corn and Corn Improvement, G. F. Sprague, (ed.), pp. 305–62. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  87. Stadler, L. J. 1944. Gamete selection in corn breeding. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 36:988–9.Google Scholar
  88. Thompson, D. L. 1954. Combining ability of homozygous diploids of corn relative to lines derived by inbreeding. Agron. J. 46:133–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Troyer, A. F. 1999. Background of U.S. hybrid corn. Crop Sci. 39:601–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wallace, H. A. 1923. Burnett’s iodent. Wallaces’ Farmer 46(6), Feb. 9, 1923.Google Scholar
  91. Weatherspoon, J. H. 1973. Usefulness of recurrent selection schemes in a commercial corn breeding program. Annu. Corn Sorghum Res. Conf. Proc. 28:137–43.Google Scholar
  92. Wiidakas, W. 1942. Early North Dakota hybrids. North Dakota Agr. Exp. Stn. Bull. 4:1–14.Google Scholar
  93. Wilkes, G. 2004. Corn, strange and marvelous: but is a definitive origin known? In Corn: Origin, History, Technology, and Production, C. W. Smith, J. Betran, and E. C. A. Runge, (eds.), pp. 3–63. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arnel R. Hallauer
    • 1
  • Marcelo J. Carena
    • 2
  • J. B. Miranda Filho
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of AgronomyIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Plant Sciences #7670North Dakota State UniversityFargoUSA
  3. 3.University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations