Breeding Objectives in Amenity Grasses

Part of the Handbook of Plant Breeding book series (HBPB, volume 5)


The vast range of natural adaptation and wide distribution of the grass family, together with an inherent affinity with open landscapes has naturally led to a capability and desire to improve this natural resource to be incorporated into, and optimised in, the lifestyles of urban-dwelling man.


Quantitative Trait Locus Endophytic Fungus Tall Fescue Perennial Ryegrass Shoot Density 


  1. Agros Associates. 2004. Bio Refining Grass in the UK. Final Report commisioned by DEFRA and National Non-Food Crop Centre, York. Available at:;isa=DBRow;op=show;dbview_id=2487 (accessed 26-3-09).
  2. Albertini, E., Porceddu, A., Marconi, G., Barcaccia, G., Pallottini, L. and Falcinelli, M. 2003. Microsatellite-AFLP for genetic mapping of complex polyploids. Genome 46:824–832.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Altpeter, F. and Xu, J. 2000. Rapid production of transgenic turfgrass (Festuca rubra L.) plants. J. Plant Physiol. 157:441–448.Google Scholar
  4. Altpeter, F., Xu, J. and Ahmed, S. 2000. Generation of large numbers of independently transformed fertile perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants of forage- and turf-type cultivars. Mol. Breed. 6:519–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Armstead, I.P., Turner, L.B., Farrell, M., Skot, L., Gomez, P., Montoya, T., Donnison, I.S., King, I.P. and Humphreys, M.O. 2004. Synteny between major heading-date QTL in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and the Hd3 heading-date locus in rice. Theor. Appl. Genet. 108:822–828.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Armstead, I.P., Turner, L.B., Marshall, A.H., Humphreys, M.O., King, I.P. and Thorogood, D. 2008. Identifying genetic components controlling fertility in the outcrossing grass species perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) by quantitative trait loci analysis and comparative genetics. New Phytol. 178:559–571.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker, S.W. 1995a. The effects of shade and changes in microclimate on the quality of turf at professional football clubs. I. Questionnaire survey. J. Sports Turf. Res. Inst. 71:66–74.Google Scholar
  8. Baker, S.W. 1995b. The effects of shade and changes in microclimate on the quality of turf at professional soccer clubs. II. Pitch survey. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 71:75–83.Google Scholar
  9. Baker, S.W. and Canaway, P.M. 1993. Concepts of playing quality: criteria and measurement. Int. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 7:172–181.Google Scholar
  10. Beard, J. and Green, R.L. 1994. The role of turfgrass in environmental protection and their benefits to humans. J. Environ. Qual. 23:452–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beard, J.B. 1973. Turfgrass science and culture. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.Google Scholar
  12. Bell, M.J. and G. Holmes. 1988. The playing quality of Association Football pitches. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 64:19–47.Google Scholar
  13. Bellamy P.H., Loveland, P.J., Bradley, R.I., Lark, R.M. and Kirk, G.J.D. 2005. Carbon losses from all soils across England and Wales 1978–2003. Nature 473:245–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bruneau A.H., Newell, A.J. and Crossley, F.M.E. 2000. Comparative performance of bentgrass species and cultivars in close mown turf. J. Turfgrass Sci. 76:63–69.Google Scholar
  15. Canaway, P.M. 1975a. Turf wear: a literature review. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 51:92–103.Google Scholar
  16. Canaway, P.M. 1975b. Further techniques in the study of turfgrass wear: an advance report on research. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 51:104–115.Google Scholar
  17. Canaway, P.M. 1976a. A differential slip wear machine (DS) for the artificial simulation of turfgrass wear. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 52:92–99.Google Scholar
  18. Canaway, P.M. 1976b. The comparison of real and artificial wear: a preliminary study on a soccer field. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 52:100–109.Google Scholar
  19. Canaway, P.M. 1981. Wear tolerance of turfgrass species. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 57: 65–83.Google Scholar
  20. Chai, M.L., Senthil, K.K. and Kim, D.H. 2004. Transgenic plants of colonial bentgrass from embryogenic callus via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. 77:165–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chakraborty, N., Bae, J., Warnke, S., Chang, T. and Jung, G. 2005. Linkage map construction in allotetraploid creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 111:795–803.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Chakraborty, N., Curley, J., Warnke, S., Casler, M.D. and Jung, G. 2006. Mapping QTL for dollar spot resistance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 113:1421–1435.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cooper, P. 1999. A review of the design and performance of vertical-flow and hybrid reed bed treatment systems. Water Sci. Technol. 40(3):1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cram, D., Forgeng, J.L. and Johnston, D. 2003. Francis Willughby’s book of games: a seventeenth century treatise on sports, games and pastimes. D ISBN 1-85928-460-4.Google Scholar
  25. Curley, J., Sim, S.C., Warnke, S., Leong, S., Barker, R. and Jung, G. 2005. QTL mapping of resistance to gray leaf spot in ryegrass. Theor. Appl. Genet. 111:1107–1117.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dai, D., Bonos, S., Guo, Z., Meyer, W.A., Day, P. and Belanger, F.C. 2003. Expression of pokeweed antiviral proteins in creeping bentgrass. Plant Cell Rep. 21:497–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Devitt, D.A., Young, M.H., Baghzouz, M. and Bird, B.M. 2007. Surface temperature, heat loading and spectral reflectance of artificial turfgrass. J. Turfgrass Sports Surf. Sci. 83:68–82.Google Scholar
  28. Dong, S. and Qu, R. 2005. High efficiency transformation of tall fescue with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Sci. 168:1453–1458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dong, S., Tredway, L.P., Shew, H.D., Wang, G.L., Sivamani, E. and Qu, R. 2007. Resistance of transgenic tall fescue to two major fungal diseases. Plant Sci. 173:501–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ebbs, S.D., Lasat, M.M., Brady, D.J., Cornish, J., Gordon, R. and Kochian, L.V. 1997. Phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from a contaminated soil. J. Environ. Qual. 26(5):1424–1430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ellis, C.J. 1981. An experimental approach to wear tolerance in Lolium perenne. PhD Thesis, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  32. Fei, S.-Z. 2008. Recent progresses on turfgrass molecular genetics and biotechnology. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS). 783:247–260.Google Scholar
  33. Fei, S. and Nelson, E. 2004. Greenhouse evaluation of fitness-related reproductive traits in roundup® tolerant transgenic creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) In Vitro Cell. Dev. B. 40:266–273.Google Scholar
  34. Fu, D., Huang, B., Xiao, Y., Muthukrishnan, S. and Liang, G. 2007. Overexpression of barley hva1 gene in creeping bentgrass for improving drought tolerance. Plant Cell Rep. 26:467–477.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Funk, C.R., Halisky, P.M., Johnson, M.C., SiegeL, M.R., Stewart, A.V., Ahmad, S., Hurley, R.H. and Harvey, I.C. 1983. An endophytic fungus and resistance to sod webworms – association in Lolium perenne L. Bio-technol. 1:189–191.Google Scholar
  36. Gao, C., Jiang, L., Folling, M., Han, L. and Nielsen, K.K. 2006. Generation of large numbers of transgenic Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) plants following biolistic gene transfer. Plant Cell Rep. 25:19–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gersberg, R.M., Elkins, B.V., Lyon, S.R. and Goldman, C.R. 1986. Role of aquatic plants in wastewater treatment by artificial wetlands. Water Res. 20:363–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gooding, M.J. and Newell, A.J. 1990. Merit evaluation of perennial ryegrass cultivars following wear. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 66:141–148.Google Scholar
  39. Grossi, N., Volterrani, M., Magni, S. and Miele, S. 2004. Tall fescue turf quality and soccer playing characteristics as affected by mowing height. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 661:319–322. Google Scholar
  40. Hartman, C.L., Lee, L., Day, P.R. and Tumer, N. 1994. Herbicide resistant turfgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) by biolistic transformation. Nat. Biotechnol. 12:919–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hickey, M.J. and Hume, D.E. 2003. Effects of mowing height and nitrogen on a turf tall fescue in comparison to perennial ryegrass and browntop bent sown alone or in mixtures 1. Establishment. J. Turfgrass Sports Surf. Sci. 79:33–49.Google Scholar
  42. Kennedy, M. 2000. The evolution of the lawn mower. Grounds Maintenance 35(5):16–22. Retrieved December 8, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 54189214).Google Scholar
  43. King, J., Thorogood, D., Edwards, K.J., Armstead, I.P., Roberts, L., Skot, K., Hanley, Z. and King, I.P. 2008. Development of a genomic microsatellite library in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and its use in trait mapping. Ann. Bot. London 101:845–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lee, S.H., Ahsan, N., Lee, K.W., Kim, D.H., Lee, D.G., Kwak, S.S., Kwon, S.Y., Kim, T.H. and Lee, B.H. 2007. Simultaneous overexpression of both CuZn superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase in transgenic tall fescue plants confers increased tolerance to a wide range of abiotic stresses. J. Plant Physiol. 164:1628–1638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Linde, D.T. and Watschke, T.L. 1997. Nutrients and sediment in runoff from creeping bentgrass and perennial ryegrass turfs. J. Environ. Qual. 26:1248–1254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Luo, H., Hu, Q., Nelso, K., Long, C., Kausch, A.P., Chandlee, J.M., Wipff, J.K. and Fricker, C.R. 2004. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) transformation using phosphinothricin selection results in a high frequency of single-copy transgene integration. Plant Cell Rep. 22:645–652.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Madison, J.H. 1960. The mowing of turfgrass. I. The effect of season, interval and height of mowing on the growth of seaside bentgrass. Agron. J. 52:449–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Malinowski, D.P. and Belesky, D.P. 2000. Adaptations of endophyte-infected cool-season grasses to environmental stresses: mechanisms of drought and mineral stress tolerance. Crop Sci. 40(4):923–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McMichael, A.C. and Camlin, M.S. 1994. New methodology for the measurement of leaf colour in ryegrass (Lolium spp). Plant Var. Seeds 7(1):37–94.Google Scholar
  50. Muylle, H., Baert, J., van Bockstaele, E., Moerkerke, B., Goetghebeur, E. and Roldan-Ruiz, I. 2005. Identification of molecular markers linked with crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. lolii) resistance in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) using AFLP markers and a bulked segregant approach. Euphytica 143:135–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Newell, A.J. 2001. Seasonal variation in the appearance of bentgrass species and cultivars in close mown turf. J. Turfgrass Sci. 71:2–12.Google Scholar
  52. Newell, A.J., Crossley, F.E.M. and Jones, A.C. 1996. Selection of grass species, cultivars and mixtures for lawn tennis courts. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 72:42–60.Google Scholar
  53. Newell, A.J. and Gooding, M.J. 1990. The performance of fine leaved Festuca spp. in close mown turf. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 66:120–133.Google Scholar
  54. Newell, A.J., Hart-Woods, J.C. and Wood, A.D. 1999. Effects of four different levels of shade on the performance of three grass mixtures for use in lawn tennis courts. J. Turfgrass Sci. 75:82–88.Google Scholar
  55. Newell, A.J. and Jones, A.C. 1995. Comparison of grass species and cultivars for use in lawn tennis courts. J. Turfgrass Sci. 71:99–106.Google Scholar
  56. Newell, A.J. and Wood, A.D. 2000. Selection of grass species, cultivars and mixtures for lawn tennis. J. Turfgrass Sci. 76:53–62.Google Scholar
  57. Padgette, S.R., Re, D.B., Barry, G.F., Eichholtz, D.E., Delannay, X., Fuchs, R.L., Kishore, G.M. and Fraley, R.T. 1996. New weed control opportunities: development of soybeans with a Roundup Ready gene. In: K. Duke (ed.) Herbicide-resistant crops: Agricultural, economic, environmental, regulatory and technological aspects. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 53–84.Google Scholar
  58. Potter, D.A. and Braman, S.K. 1991. Ecology and management of turfgrass insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 36:383–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Renganayaki, K., Jessup, R.W., Burson, B.L., Hussey, M.A. and Read, J.C. 2005. Identification of male-specific AFLP markers in dioecious Texas bluegrass. Crop Sci. 45:2529–2539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ross, S.J., Ennos, A.R. and Fitter, A.H. 1991. Turf strength and root characteristics of ten turfgrass cultivars. Ann. Appl. Biol. 118(2):433–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rotter, D., Amundsen, K., Bonos, S.A., Meyer, W.A., Warnke, S.E. and Belanger, F.C. 2009. Colonial bentgrass genetic linkage mapping. In: T. Yamada and G. Spangenberg (eds.) Molecular breeding of forage and turf. Springer, The Netherlands, pp. 309–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schardl, C.L., Leuchtmann, A. and Spiering, M.J. 2004. Symbioses of grasses with seedborne fungal endophytes. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 55:315–340.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Shearman, R.C. 1985. Turfgrass culture and water use In: Gibeault, V.A. and S.T. Cockerham (eds.) Turfgrass Water Conservation. Publication 21405 Agriculture and Natural Resources University of California ISBN-10:0931876699 ISBN-13:978–0931876691.Google Scholar
  64. Shearman, R.C. and Beard, J.B. 1975. Turfgrass wear tolerance mechanisms .3. Physiological, morphological, and anatomical characteristics associated with turfgrass wear tolerance. Agron. J. 67(2):215–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Smith, R.A.H. and Bradshaw, A.D. 1979. The use of metal tolerant populations for the reclamation of metelliferous wastes. J. Appl. Ecol. 6:595–612.Google Scholar
  66. Soussana J.F., Loiseau, P., Vuichard, N., Ceschia, E., Balesdent, J., Chavallier, T. and Arrouays, D. 2004. Carbon cycling and sequestration opportunities in temperate grasslands. Soil Use Manage. 20:219–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stebbins, G.L. 1981. Coevolution of grasses and herbivores. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 68:75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. STRI 2009. Turf Grass Seed 2009. Published by the British Society of Plant Breeders Limited in conjunction with the Sports Turf Research Institute.Google Scholar
  69. Studer, B., Boller, B., Bauer, E., Posselt, U.K., Widmer, F. and Kolliker, R. 2007. Consistent detection of QTLs for crown rust resistance in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) across environments and phenotyping methods. Theor. Appl. Genet. 115:9–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Takahashi, W., Fujimori, M., Miura, Y., Komatsu, T., Nishizawa, Y., Hibi, T. and Takamizo, T. 2005. Increased resistance to crown rust disease in transgenic Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) expressing the rice chitinase gene. Plant Cell Rep. 23(12):811–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Tani, T. and Beard, J.B. 1997. Color atlas of turfgrass diseases. Disease characteristics and control. Ann. Arbor. Press, Chelsea-Michigan.Google Scholar
  72. Tegg, R.S. and Lane, P.A. 2004. A comparison of the performance and growth of a range of turfgrass species under shade. Aust. J. Exp. Agr. 44:353–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Thorogood, D. 1995. The Interrelationships of colour parameters in turfgrass – Tha basis of a model for turfgrass colour description. Plant Var. Seeds 8:55–64.Google Scholar
  74. Thorogood, D. 1996. Varietal colour of Lolium perenne L. turfgrass and its interation with environmental conditions. Plant Var. Seeds 9:15–20.Google Scholar
  75. Wang, Z.Y., Scott, M., Bell, J., Hopkins, A. and Lehmann, D. 2003. Field performance of transgenic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) plants and their progenies. Theor. Appl. Genet. 107:406–412.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Wartud, L.S., Lee, H.E., Fairbrother, A., Burdick, C., Reichman, J.R., Bollman, M., Strom, M., King, G. and Van de Water, P.K. 2004. Evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified creeping bentgrass with CP4 EPSPS as a marker. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 101:14533–14538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wilkins, P.W., Allen, D.K. and Mytton, L.R. 2000. Differences in the nitrogen use efficiency of perennial ryegrass varieties under simulated rotational grazing and their effects on nitrogen recovery and herbage nitrogen content. Grass Forage Sci. 55(1):69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Williams, C.P. and Pulley, G.E. 2006. Synthetic surface heat studies. Brigham Young University. HeatStudy _F.pdf (Accessed 26-11-08).
  79. Winterbottom, W. 1985. Artificial Grass Surfaces for Association Football. Sports Council, London, 127 pp.Google Scholar
  80. Wu, Y.Y., Chen, Q.J., Chen, M., Chen, J. and Wang, X.C. 2005. Salt-tolerant transgenic perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene. Plant Sci. 169:65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Xing, J., Xu, Y., Tian, J., Gianfagna, T. and Huang, B. 2007. Studies on environmental stress tolerance in transgenic creeping bentgrass with the IPT gene for cytokinin biosynthesis. Proceedings of the 16th Annual Rutgers Turfgrass Symposium, p. 18. January 11–12, 2007.Google Scholar
  82. Yamada, T., Jones, E.S., Cogan, N.O.I., Vecchies, A.C., Nomura, T., Hisano, H., Shimamato, Y., Smith, K.F., Hayward, M.D. and Forster, J.W. 2004. QTL analysis of morphological, developmental, and winter hardiness-associated traits in perennial ryegrass. Crop Sci. 44:925–935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zhao, J., Zhi, D., Xue, Z., Liu, H. and Xia, G. 2007. Enhanced salt tolerance of transgenic progeny of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) expressing a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene from Arabidopsis. J. Plant Physiol. 164:1377–1383.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Zhenfei, G., Bonos, S., Meyer, W.A., Day, P.R. and Belanger, F.C. 2003. Transgenic creeping bentgrass with delayed dollar spot symptoms. Mol. Breed. 11:95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheena Duller
    • 1
  • Daniel Thorogood
    • 1
  • Stacy A. Bonos
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural SciencesAberystwyth UniversityAberystwythUK
  2. 2.Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, RutgersThe State University of New JerseyNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations