Red Clover

  • Beat Boller
  • Franz Xaver Schubiger
  • Roland Kölliker
Part of the Handbook of Plant Breeding book series (HBPB, volume 5)

Abstract

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a perennial forage legume of limited persistence, mainly used for cutting in grass–clover leys of 2–4 years of duration, but also occurring naturally in permanent grassland. Among the forage legumes, in terms of seed produced and marketed worldwide, and in numbers of cultivars available, red clover ranks second after alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) but still higher than white clover (Trifolium repens L.), although the latter has been gaining importance in the last decades.

Keywords

Carbohydrate Europe Estrogenic Cage Leaching 

References

  1. Abberton, M.T., and Marshall, A.H. 2005. Progress in Breeding Perennial Clovers for Temperate Agriculture. J. Agric. Sci. 143:117–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akerberg, E., Bingefors, S. and Lesins, K. 1947. About present-day problems of red clover and lucerne breeding for Middle Sweden. (in Swedish, original title: Nagra aktuella problem inom förädlingen med rödklöver och lusern för Mellansverige). Sveriges Utsädesföreningen Tidskrift 57, pp. 200–229.Google Scholar
  3. Berg, C.C. and Leath, K.T. 1996. Responses of Red Clover Cultivars to Stemphylium Leaf Spot. Crop Sci. 36:71–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berthaut, J. 1968. The use of nitrous oxide in creating autotetraploid varieties in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). (in French, original title: L’emploi du protoxyde d’azote dans la création de variétés autotétraploides chez le trèfle violet (Trifolium pratense L.)). Annales d’Amélioration des Plantes 18, pp. 381–390.Google Scholar
  5. Bingefors, S. 1951. Studies on breeding red clover for resistance to stem nematodes, Volume 8 of Växtödling – Plant Husbandry. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktrykeri AB, Uppsala, Sweden.Google Scholar
  6. Boller, B. 1994. Breeding red clover for a reduced content of formononetin. In D. Reheul, and A. Ghesquiere (eds.), Breeding for Quality. Proceedings of the 19th Fodder Crops Section Meeting. RVP, Brugge, Belgium, pp. 187–191,.Google Scholar
  7. Boller, B. 2000. History and development of the Swiss “Mattenklee”, a persistent form of cultivated red clover (in German, original title: Altes und Neues vom schweizerischen Mattenklee, einer ausdauernden Form des Kultur-Rotklees). Vierteljahresschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zürich 145, pp. 143–151.Google Scholar
  8. Boller, B., Bigler, P., Bucanovic, I. and Bänziger, I. 1998. Southern anthracnose – a new threat for red clover persistence in cooler regions. In B. Boller, and F. J. Stadelmann (eds.), Breeding for a multifunctional agriculture. Proceedings of the 21st Meeting of the Fodder Crops and Amenity Grasses Section of EUCARPIA. FAL Reckenholz, Zürich, pp. 195–197.Google Scholar
  9. Boller, B.C. and Nösberger, J. 1994. Differences in nitrogen fixation among field-grown red clover strains at different levels of 15-N fertilization. Euphytica 78:167–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boller, B., Schubiger, F. and Tanner, P. 2003. Can organic agriculture do without tetraploid varieties of red clover and raygrasses (in German, original title: Kann der Biolandbau auf tetraploide Sorten von Rotklee und Raygräsern verzichten?). In P. Ruckenbauer, et al. (eds.), Bericht über die Arbeitstagung 2002 der Vereinigung der Pflanzenzüchter und Saatgutkaufleute Österreichs. BAL Gumpenstein, Gumpenstein, Austria, pp. 71–74.Google Scholar
  11. Boller, B., Tanner, P. and Schubiger, F. 2004. Merula and Pavo, new persistent red clover cultivars of the Mattenklee type (in German, original title: Merula und Pavo: neue, ausdauernde Mattenkleesorten). Agrarforschung 11:156–161.Google Scholar
  12. Brewbaker, J.L. 1952. Colchicine induction of tetraploids in Trifolium species. Agron. J. 44:592–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bundessortenamt. 2007. Beschreibende Sortenliste Futtergräser, Esparsette, Klee, Luzerne 2007. Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlaghttp://www.bundessortenamt.de/internet30/fileadmin/Files/PDF/bsl_futtergraeser_2007.pdf.
  14. Collard, B.C.Y. and Mackill, D.J. 2008. Marker-assisted selection: an approach for precision plant breeding in the twenty-first century. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 363:557–572.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Coon, J.T., Pittler, M.H. and Ernst, E. 2007. Trifolium pratense Isoflavones in the Treatment of Menopausal Hot Flushes: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Phytomedicine 14:153–159.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dias, P.M.B., Julier, B., Sampoux, J.P., Barre, P. and Dall’agnol, M. 2008. Genetic Diversity in Red Clover (Trifolium pratense L.) Revealed by Morphological and Microsatellite (SSR) Markers. Euphytica 160:189–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dixon, G.R. and Doodson, J.K. 1974. Techniques for Testing Resistance of Red-Clover Cultivars to Sclerotinia-Trifoliorum Erikss (Clover Rot). Euphytica 23:671–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Frandsen, K.J. 1946. Studies about Sclerotinia trifoliorum Eriksson (in Danish, original title: Studier over Sclerotinia trifoliorum Eriksson). Danske Forlag, Kopenhagen, 220 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Freudenthaler, P., Kainz, W., Schantl, S., Dachler, M., Hackl, G., Holaus, K., Pelzmann, H., Koller, B. and Scherenzel, P. 1998. Index Seminum Austriae. AV-Druck, Wien, 80 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Funke, C. 1956. Comparative morphological and physiological investigations on pollen of diploid and autotetraploid crops (in Geman, original title: Vergleichende morphologische und physiologische Untersuchungen am Pollen diploider und autotetraploider Kulturpflanzen). Zeitschrift für Pflanzenzüchtung 36 :pp. 165–196.Google Scholar
  21. Herrmann, D., Boller, B., Studer, B., Widmer, F. and Kolliker, R. 2006. QTL analysis of seed yield components in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 112:536–545.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Herrmann, D., Boller, B., Studer, B., Widmer, F. and Kolliker, R. 2008. Improving persistence in red clover: Insights from QTL analysis and comparative phenotypic evaluation. Crop Sci. 48:269–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Herrmann, D., Boller, B., Widmer, F. and Kolliker, R. 2005. Optimization of bulked AFLP analysis and its application for exploring diversity of natural and cultivated populations of red clover. Genome 48:474–486.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hess, H.E., Landolt, E. and Hirzel, R. 1970. Flora der Schweiz, Band 2. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, 956 pp.Google Scholar
  25. Isobe, S., Gau, M., Yamaguchi, H., Uchiyama, K., Maki, Y., Matsu-ura, M., Ueda, S., Sawai, A., Tsutsumi, M., Takeda, Y. and Nakashima, K. 2002. Breeding of red clover ‘Natsuyu’ and its characteristics. National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region Research Report 177:1–13.Google Scholar
  26. Isobe, S., Klimenko, I., Ivashuta, S., Gau, M. and Kozlov, N.N. 2003. First RFLP linkage map of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) based on cDNA probes and its transferability to other red clover germplasm. Theor. Appl. Genet. 108:105–112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Isobe, S., Kölliker, R., Hisano, H., Sasamoto, S., Wada, T., Klimenko, I., Okumura, K. and Tabata, S. 2009. Construction of a consensus linkage map and genome-wide polymorphism analysis of red clover. BMC Plant Biol.: in press.Google Scholar
  28. Jessen, C. 1867. Alberti Magni ... De vegetabilibus libri VII, historiae naturalis pars XVIII. Editionem criticam ab Ernesto Meyero coeptam, absolvit Carolus Jessen. Berolini, Reimeri, 752 pp.Google Scholar
  29. Julen, G. 1959. Red clover (in German, original title: Rotklee). In: H. Kappert, and W. Rudorf (eds.), Züchtung der Futterpflanzen, Handbuch der Pflanzenzüchtung, Vol. IV, 2nd ed. Paul Parey, Berlin and Hamburg, pp. 242–305.Google Scholar
  30. Kölliker, R., Enkerli, J. and Widmer, F. 2006. Characterization of novel microsatellite loci for red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) from enriched genomic libraries. Mol. Ecol. Notes 6:50–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kouamé, C.N. and Quesenberry, K.H. 1993. Cluster analysis of a world collection of red clover germplasm. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 40:39–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Krautzer, B. 2003. Development and conservation of adapted grasses and legumes for grassland management and landscape building in alpine regions (in German, original title: Entwicklung und Erhaltung standortgerechter Gräser und Leguminosen für die Grünlandwirtschaft und den Landschaftsbau im Alpenraum). Abschlussbericht Projektnummer 2923. BAL Gumpenstein, Irdning.Google Scholar
  33. Leath, K.T. and Byers, R.A. 1973. Attractiveness of diseased red-clover roots to clover root borer. Phytopathology 63:428–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lee, M.R.F., Winters, A.L., Scollan, N.D., Dewhurst, R.J., Theodorou, M.K. and Minchin, F.R. 2004. Plant-mediated lipolysis and proteolysis in red clover with different polyphenol oxidase activities. J. Sci. Food Agric. 84:1639–1645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Levan, A. 1940. Producing tetraploid red clover (in Swedish, original title: Framställning av tetraploid rödklöver). Sveriges Utsädesföreningen Tidskrift 50, pp. 115–124.Google Scholar
  36. Martinet, G. 1903. Studies and experiments with forage plants (in French, original title: Etudes et essais de plantes fourragères). Annuaire agricole de la Suisse 4, pp. 161–169.Google Scholar
  37. Marum, P., Smith, R.R. and Grau, C.R. 1994. Development of Procedures to Identify Red-Clover Resistant to Sclerotinia trifoliorum. Euphytica 77:257–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Milligan, B.G. 1991. Chloroplast Dna Diversity Within and Among Populations of Trifolium pratense. Curr. Genet. 19:411–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mosjidis, J.A., Greene, S.L., Klinger, K.A. and Afonin, A. 2004. Isozyme diversity in wild red clover populations from the caucasus. Crop Sci. 44:665–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mosjidis, J.A. and Klingler, K.A. 2006. Genetic Diversity in the Core Subset of the US Red Clover Germplasm. Crop Sci. 46:758–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nedelnik, J. 1992. Comparison of Greenhouse Resistance of Trifolium pratense to Fungi of the Genus Fusarium Link Ex Fr With Persistence in Field Conditions. Rostl. Vyroba 38:395–398.Google Scholar
  42. Neuweiler, E. 1932. Cultivation trials with red clover (in German, original title: Anbauversuche mit Rotklee). Landwirtschaftliches Jahrbuch der Schweiz 35, pp. 50–65.Google Scholar
  43. Nutman, P.S. 1984. Improving nitrogen fixation in legumes by plant breeding, the relevance of host selection experiments in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum). Plant Soil 82:285–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nyfeler, D., Huguenin-Elie, O., Suter, M., Frossard, E., Connolly, J. and Lüscher, A. 2009. Strong mixture effects among four species in fertilised agricultural grassland led to persistent and consistent transgressive overyielding. J. Appl. Ecol. 46, 683–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. OECD 2009. List of varieties eligible for certification. OECD. http://www.oecd.org/document/14/0,3343,en_2649_33905_41097230_1_1_1_1,00.html. Accessed 12 June 2009.
  46. Parrott, W.A. and Smith, R.R. 1986. Recurrent Selection for 2n Pollen Formation in Red-Clover. Crop Sci. 26:1132–1135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pieters, A.J. and Hollowell, E.A. 1937. Clover Improvement. Yearb.Agric.1937:1190–1214.Google Scholar
  48. Quesenberry, K.H., Baltensperger, D.D., Dunn, R.A., Wilcox, C.J. and Hardy, S.R. 1989. Selection for tolerance to root-knot nematodes in red-clover. Crop Sci. 29:62–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rufelt, S. 1985. Selection for Fusarium root-rot resistance in red-clover. Ann. Appl. Biol. 107:529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rumball, W., Keogh, R.G. and Sparks, G.A. 2005. ‘Grasslands Hf1’ red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) - A cultivar bred for isoflavone content. N. Z. J. Agric. Res. 48:345–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sato, S., Isobe, S., Asamizu, E., Ohmido, N., Kataoka, R., Nakamura, Y., Kaneko, T., Sakurai, N., Okumura, K., Klimenko, I., Sasamoto, S., Wada, T., Watanabe, A., Kohara, M., Fujishiro, T. and Tabata, S. 2005. Comprehensive structural analysis of the genome of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). DNA Res. 12:301–364.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Schubiger, F.X., Streckeisen, P. and Boller, B. 2003. Resistance to southern anthracnose (Colletotrichum trifolii) in cultivars of red clover (Trifolium pratense). In: J. Nedelnik, and B. Cagas (eds.), Biodiversity and genetic resources as the bases for future breeding. Proceedings of the XXV Eucarpia Fodder Crops and Amenity Grasses Section and XV Eucarpia Medicago spp. Group Meeting, Brno, Czech Republic, September 1–4 2003. Czech. J. Genet. Breed. 39(Special Issue):309–312.Google Scholar
  53. Simioni, C., Schifino-Wittmann, M.T. and Dall’agnol, M. 2006. Sexual Polyploidization in red clover. Scientia Agricola 63:26–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith, R.R. 2001. Breeding for abiotic and biotic stress in perennial Trifolium. In: P. Monjardino, et al. (eds.), Breeding for stress tolerance in fodder crops and amenity grasses. 23rd Meeting of the Fodder Crops and Amenity Grasses Section of EUCARPIA. Department of Agricultural Sciences - University of Azores, Azores, Portugal, pp. 13–19.Google Scholar
  55. Smith, R.R., Maxwell, D.P., Hanson, E.W. and Smith, W.K. 1973. Registration of Arlington Red-Clover. Crop Sci. 13:771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Smith, R.R., Taylor, N.L., and Bowley, S.R. 1985. Red clover. In: N. L. Taylor (ed.), Clover Science and Technology, 25th ed. ASA/CSSA/SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 457–470.Google Scholar
  57. Stebler, F.G. and Volkart, A. 1913. Die besten Futterpflanzen. Erster Band. 4. Auflage. K.J. Wyss, Bern, 175 pp.Google Scholar
  58. Steiner, J.J., Smith, R.R. and Alderman, S.C. 1997. Red clover seed production. 4. Root rot resistance under forage and seed production systems. Crop Sci. 37:1278–1282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sullivan, M.L. and Hatfield, R.D. 2006. Polyphenol oxidase and o-diphenols inhibit postharvest proteolysis in red clover and alfalfa. Crop Sci. 46:662–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Suter, D., Hirschi, H.-U., Briner, H.-U., Frick, R., Jeangros, B. and Bertossa, M. 2008a. List of recommended varieties of forage plants for 2009–2010 (in German, original title: Liste der empfohlenen Sorten von Futterpflanzen 2009–2010). Agrarforschung 15(10):I–VIII.Google Scholar
  61. Suter, D., Rosenberg, E., Frick, R. and Mosimann, E. 2008b. Standard mixtures for forage production: revision 2009-2012 (in German, original title: Standardmischungen für den Futterbau: Revision 2009-2012). Agrarforschung 15(10):1–12.Google Scholar
  62. Taylor, N.L. 2008. A Century of clover breeding developments in the United States. Crop Sci. 48:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Taylor, N.L., Gibson, P.B. and Knight, W.E. 1977. Genetic vulnerability and germplasm resources of the true clovers. Crop Sci. 17:632–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Taylor, N.L. and Quesenberry, K.H. 1996. Red Clover Science, Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture 28. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 226 pp.Google Scholar
  65. Taylor, N.L., Smith, R.R. and Anderson, J.A. 1990. Selection in red-clover for resistance to Northern Anthracnose. Crop Sci. 30:390–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ulloa, O., Ortega, F. and Campos, H. 2003. Analysis of genetic diversity in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) breeding populations as revealed by RAPD genetic markers. Genome 46:529–535.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Venuto, B.C., Smith, R.R. and Grau, C.R. 1999. Selection for resistance to Fusarium wilt in red clover. Can. J. Plant Sci. 79:351–356.Google Scholar
  68. Zeven, A.C. and de Wet, J.M.T 1982. Dictionary of cultivated plants and their regions of diversity. International Book Distributors, Wageningen, 259 pp.Google Scholar
  69. Zohary, M. and Heller, D. 1984. The Genus Trifolium. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 606 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beat Boller
    • 1
  • Franz Xaver Schubiger
    • 1
  • Roland Kölliker
    • 1
  1. 1.Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon, Research Station ARTZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations