Findings from Chronic Optic Nerve and Cortical Stimulation
This chapter reviews the experiments that have produced visual sensations in humans through electrical stimulation of the central nervous system. Initially, surface stimulation of the visual cortex, provided insight into how electrical stimulation of V1 could possibly provide a visual prosthesis for the blind. Intracortical microstimulation was then investigated that would allow lower power stimulation and increased density of microelectrodes. The stimulation of the optic nerve has also been investigated as a possible site for a visual prosthesis.
The next section is dedicated to what is known and what needs to be done for the development of a visual prosthesis.
The following section examines current research efforts directed towards the development of a visual prosthesis. They include optic nerve stimulation, cortical surface stimulation and intracortical stimulation of visual cortex. The CORTIVIS Program is a comprehensive development of an intracortical visual prosthesis. The lateral geniculate nucleus is also being studied as a site for a visual prosthesis.
The final section of this chapter deals with the developments that are needed for a functional visual prosthesis. They include microelectrode arrays, stimulation hardware, and low power image sensing and processing circuitry that can control the stimulators.
KeywordsOptic Nerve Visual Cortex Electrode Array Lateral Geniculate Nucleus Microelectrode Array
Huntington Medical Research Institute
Illinois Institute of Technology
Lateral geniculate nucleus
Multimode digital image sensor
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
National Institutes of Health
University of Chicago
- 1.Ahnelt P, Ammermuller J, Pelayo F, et al. (2002), Neuroscientific basis for the design and development of a bioinspired visual processing front-end. EMBEC Abstract, p. 1692–3.Google Scholar
- 2.Asanuma H, Stoney SD Jr, Abzug C (1968), Relationship between afferent input and motor outflow in cat motorsensory cortex. J Neurophysiol, 31(5): p. 670–81.Google Scholar
- 4.Bartlett JR, Doty RW (1980), An exploration of the ability of macaques to detect microstimulation of striate cortex. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars), 40(4): p. 713–27.Google Scholar
- 7.Branner A, Stein RB, Normann RA (2001), Selective stimulation of cat sciatic nerve using an array of varying-length microelectrodes. J Neurophysiol, 85(4): p. 1585–94.Google Scholar
- 9.Brindley GS, Lewin WS (1968) The sensations produced by electrical stimulation of the visual cortex. J Physiol (London), 196: p. 479–93.Google Scholar
- 11.Button J, Putnam T (1962), Visual response to cortical stimulation in the blind. J Iowa Med Soc, 52: p. 17–21.Google Scholar
- 12.Chai X, Li L, Wu K, et al. (2008), C-Sight visual prosthesis for the blind. IEEE BMES, 27(5): p. 20–8.Google Scholar
- 14.Chai X, Zhang L, Li W, et al. (2007), Tactile based phosphene positioning system for visual prosthesis. Invest Opthalmol Vis Sci, 48(5): p. 662, E-Abstract.Google Scholar
- 18.CORTIVIS http://cortivis.umh.es/.
- 22.Dobelle WH, Mladejovsky MG (1974), Phosphenes produced by electrical stimulation of the visual cortex, and their application to the development of a prosthesis for the blind. J Physiol (London), 243: p. 553–76.Google Scholar
- 25.Duret F, Brelen M, Lambert V, et al. (2006), Object localization, discrimination, and grasping with the optic nerve visual prosthesis. Restor Neurol Neurosci, 24: p. 31–40.Google Scholar
- 27.Foerster O (1929), Beitrage zur Pathophysiologie der Sehbahn und der Sehsphare. J Psychol Neurol Lpz, 39: p. 463–85.Google Scholar
- 29.Hambrecht FT (1995), Visual prostheses based on direct interfaces with the visual system. Brailliere’s Clin Neurol, 4(1): p. 147–65.Google Scholar
- 30.Heiduschka P, Fischer D, Thanos S (2005), Recovery of visual evoked potentials after regeneration of cut retinal ganglion cell axons within the ascending visual pathway in adult rats. Restor Neurol Neurosci, 23: p. 303–12.Google Scholar
- 31.House PA, MacDonald JD, Tresco PA, Normann RA (2006), Acute microelectrode array implantation into human neocortes: preliminary technique and histological considerations. Neurosurg Focus, 20(5): p. E4.Google Scholar
- 36.Najafi K, Ghovanloo M (2004), A multichannel monolithic wireless microstimulator. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, 6: p. 4197–200.Google Scholar
- 38.Penfield W, Rasmussen T (1952), The Cerebral Cortex of Man. New York: Macmillan, p. 135–47, 165–6.Google Scholar
- 39.Penfield W, Jasper H (1954), Epilepsy and functional anatomy of the human brain. London: Churchill, p. 116–6, 404–40.Google Scholar
- 43.Sawan M, Trepanier A, Trepanier J-L, et al. (2006), A new CMOS multimode digital pixel sensor dedicated to an implantable visual cortical stimulator. Anal Integ Cir Sig Proc, 49(2): p. 925–1030.Google Scholar
- 45.Shaw JD (1955), Method and mean for aiding the blind. United States Patent Number 2,721,316.Google Scholar
- 46.Stoney SD Jr, Thompson WD, Asanuma H (1968), Excitation of pyramidal tract cells by intracortical microstimulation: effective extent of stimulating current. J Neurophysiol, 31(5): p. 659–69.Google Scholar
- 50.Troyk PR, Detiefsen DE, Cogan SF, et al. (2004), “Safe” charge-injection waveforms for iridium oxide (AIROF) microelectrodes. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Bio Soc, 6: p. 4141–4.Google Scholar
- 54.Yao Y, Gulari M, Hetke J, Wise K (2004), A low-profile neural stimulating array with on-chip current generation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Soc, 3: p. 1994–7.Google Scholar
- 55.Yao Y, Gulari MN, Ghimire S, et al. (2005), A low-profile three-dimensional silicon/parylene stimulating electrode array for neural prosthesis applications. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Soc, 2: p. 1293–6.Google Scholar