Advertisement

Self-Regulation Across Some Life Transitions

  • Katica Lacković-Grgin
  • Zvjezdan Penezić
Chapter

Abstract

Some earlier philosophers and scientists (e.g., in the theory of evolution of Charles Darwin, in the socio-cultural theory of cognitive development of L. Vigotsky, in the symbolic interactionism of G. H. Mead, and in the developmental-cognitive theory of J. Piaget – have brought forth the idea that the development of an individual is the result of the interaction of a person and the environment. That idea was best elaborated by K. Lewin (1951) in his field theory. From the formula that behavior is the function of a person and the environment (B = f(PE)), it follows that the environment influences the person but also that the person influences the environment and changes it. The idea was elaborated later in more detail by U. Bronfenbrenner in formulating the theory of ecological systems and R. M. Lerner in his developmental contextualism. The biological changes in the organism, as well as the social interactions, exist as a part of the ecological system (Bronfenbrenner 1979), and bi-directional, reciprocal, and dynamic interactions of biological, psychological, and social processes are responsible for development (Lerner and Kauffman 1985). Therefore, development is viewed as a confluence of many mutually linked systems and subsystems, biological, social, cultural, and historical. Under the influence of all this theorizing, in the contemporary life-span psychology, changes occurred in the understanding of the principal determinants of development, i.e., the explanation of development in terms of biological changes in the organism that has ceased to dominate. Also, subject of developmental psychology, as the psychology of childhood and adolescence, has been extended after sixties of the twentieth century. Baltes (1983) emphasizes that the German psychology of development in the thirties of the twentieth century the necessity that development should be studied during the whole life-span was emphasized continuously, and takes into consideration the social and cultural factors of development in the process. He points to life events and transitions as important stimuli of development. Historically new phenomena in development, such as prolonged adolescence, the crisis of the forties, the crisis of “the empty nest” as well as the extension of life-span of modern people, they all urge the life-span psychologists to view structures, stages and the dynamics of development with reference to the historical period and with reference to cultural differences.

Keywords

Life Satisfaction Social Comparison Personal Development Primary Control Secondary Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Albert, S. (1977). Temporal comparison theory. Psychological Review, 84, 485–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkinson, J. (1964). An introduction to motivation. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  3. Bakan, D. (1966). The duality of human existence: An essay on psychology and religion. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  4. Baltes, M. M. (1995). Dependencies in old age: Gains and losses. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4, 14–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baltes, P. B. (1983). Life-span developmental psychology: Observations on history and theory revisited. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Developmental psychology: Historical and philosophical perspectives (pp. 79–111). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  6. Baltes, P. B. (1987). Theoretical propositions of life-span developmental psychology: On the dynamics between growth and decline. Developmental Psychology, 23, 611–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baltes, P. B. (1990). Psychological perspectives on successful aging: The model of selective optimisation with compensation. In P. B. Baltes & M. M. Baltes (Eds.), Successful aging: Perspective from the behavioral science (pp. 1–34). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baltes, P. B. (1997). On the incomplete architecture of human ontogeny: Selection, optimization and compensation as foundation of the development theory. American Psychologist, 52, 366–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baltes, P. B., & Graf, P. (1996). Psychological aspects of aging: Facts and frontiers. In D. Magnuson (Ed.), The life-span development of individuals: Behavioural, neurological, and psychosocial perspectives (pp. 427–459). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baumeister, R. F. (1991). Meanings of life. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  12. Baumeister, R. F., Dale, K., & Sommer, K. L. (1998). Freudian defensive mechanism and empirical findings in modern social psychology: Reaction formation, projection, displacement, undoing, isolation, sublimation, and denial. Journal of Personality, 66, 1081–1124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berry, J. W., Kim, U., Minde, T., & Mok, D. (1987). Comparative studies of acculturative stress. International Migration Review, 21, 491–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brammer, L. M. (1992). Coping with life transitions. International Journal for the Assessment of Counseling, 15, 123–153.Google Scholar
  15. Brandtstädter, J. (1997). Action, culture and development: Points of convergence. Culture and Psychology, 3, 335–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brandtstädter, J., Rothermund, K., & Schmitz, U. (1998). Maintaining self-integrity and efficacy through adulthood and later life: The adaptive functions of assimilative persistence and accommodative flexibility. In J. Heckhausen & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulation across life-span (pp. 365–389). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brandtstädter, J., & Greeve, W. (1994). The aging self: Stabilizing and protective processes. Developmental Review, 14, 52–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Brown, R. (2000). Social Identity Theory: past achievements, current problems and future challenges. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 745–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brunstein, J. C. (1993). Personal goals and subjective well-being: A longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1061–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Buunk, B. P., Gibbons, F. X., & Reis-Bergan, M. (1997). Social comparison in health and illness: A historical overview. In B. P. Buunk & F. X. Gibbons (Eds.), Health, coping and well-being: Perspectives from social comparison theory (pp. 1–23). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  22. Cantor, N., & Fleeson, W. (1991). Life tasks and self-regulatory processes. Advances in Motivation and Achievement, 7, 327–369.Google Scholar
  23. Carstensen, L. L. (1995). Evidence for a life-span theory of socioemotional selectivity. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4, 151–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1990). Origins and functions of positive and negative affect: A control process view. Psychological Review, 97, 19–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chatzisarantis, N., Biddle, S., & Meek, G. (1997). A self-determination theory approach to the study of intentions and the intention-behaviour relationship in children’s physical activity. British Journal of Health Psychology, 2, 343–360.Google Scholar
  26. Chiu, P., & Nevius, J. (1990). Three wishes of gifted and non gifted adolescents. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 151, 133–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cox, T. (1982). Stress. London, Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  28. Cramer, P. (1997). Identity, personality and defense mechanisms: An observer-based study. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 58–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. C´ubela, V. (2001). Istraživanje procesa socijalnog uspoređivanja (Research of process of social comparisons). RADOVI-Razdio FPSP, 40(17), 117–142.Google Scholar
  30. Danner, D. E., & Schröder, H. C. (1992). Biologie des Alterns: Ontogenese und Evolution (Biology of the elderly: Ontogenesis and evolution). In P. B. Baltes & J. Mittelstrass (Eds.), Zukunft des Alterns und gesellschaftliche Entwicklung (pp. 95–123). Berlin: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  31. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  32. Elder, G. H., & O’rand, A. M. (1995). Adults lives in a changing society. In K. S. Cook, G. A. Fine & J. S. House (Eds.), Sociological perspectives on social psychology (pp. 452–475). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  33. Emmons, R. A. (1986). Personal strivings: An approach to personality and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1058–1068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Emmons, R. A. (1992). Abstract versus concrete goals: Personal striving level, physical illness, and psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 292–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Emmons, R. A. (1996). Striving and feeling: Personal goals and subjective well-being. In P. M. Gollwitzer & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation behavior (pp. 313–337). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  36. Emmons, R. A. (1999). The psychology of ultimate concerns. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  37. Endler, N. S., & Parker, J. D. A. (1990). Multidimensional assessment of coping: A critical evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 844–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Erikson, E. (1980). Identity and the life cycle. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  39. Erikson, E. H. (1982). The life cycle completed. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  40. Erikson, E., Erikson, J. M., & Kivnick, H. Q. (1986). Vital involvement in old age. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  41. Feather, N. T. (1982). Unemployment and its psychological correlates: A study of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, protestant ethic values, attributional style, and apathy. Australian Journal of Psychology, 34, 309–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Feather, N. T., & Bond, M. J. (1983). Time structure and purposeful activity among employed and unemployed university graduates. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 56, 241–254.Google Scholar
  43. Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Finch, C. E. (1996). Biological bases for plasticity during aging of individual life histories. In D. Magnusson (Ed.), The life-span development of individuals: Behavioural, neurobiological and psychosocial perspectives (pp. 488–511). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Gibbons, F. X., & Buunk, B. P. (1999). Individual differences in social comparison: Development of a scale of social comparison orientation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 129–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gollwitzer, P. M. (1987). Suchen, Finden und Festigen der eigenen Identität: Unstillbare Zielintentionen (Searching, finding and consolidating of one’s own identity: Unsaturatable goal intentions). In H. Heckhausen, P. M. Gollwitzer & F. E. Weinert (Eds.), Jenseits des Rubikon:Der Wille in den Humanwissenschaften (pp. 176–189). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  47. Gould, S. J. (1999). A critique of Heckhausen and Schultz’s theory of control from a cross-cultural perspective. Psychological Review, 106, 597–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Grob, A., Krings, F., & Bangerter, A. (2001). Life markers in biographical narratives of people from three cohorts: A life-span perspective in its historical context. Human Development, 44, 171–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). Autonomy in children's learning: An experimental and individual difference investigation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 890–898.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gutman, D. L. (1964). An exploration of ego configuration in middle and later life. In B. L. Neugarten (Ed.), Personality in middle and late life (pp. 114–148). New York: Atherton.Google Scholar
  51. Havighurst, R. J. (1953). Human development and education. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  52. Heckhausen, H. (1967). The anatomy of achievement motivation. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  53. Heckhausen, J. (1991). Motivation and action. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  54. Heckhausen, J. (1999). Developmental regulation in adulthood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Heckhausen, J. (2002). Developmental regulation of life-course transitions: A control theory approach. In L. Pulkkinen & A. Caspi (Eds.), Pathways of successful development – Personality in the life course (pp. 257–281). Cambridge: Cambridge Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Heckhausen, J., & Schulz, R. (1993). Optimization by selection and compensation: Balancing primary and secondary control in life-span development. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 16, 287–303.Google Scholar
  57. Heckhausen, J., & Schulz, R. (1995). A life – span theory of control. Psychological Review, 102, 284–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Heckhausen, J., & Schulz, R. (1998). Developmental regulation in adulthood: Selection and compensation via primary and secondary control. In J. Heckhausen & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulation across the life-span (pp. 50–78). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Helgeson, V. S., & Mickelson, K. D. (1995). Motives for Social Comparison. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 1200–1209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Higgins, E. T., & Silberman, I. (1998). Development of regulatory focus: Promotion and prevention as ways of living. In J. Heckhausen & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulation across life-span (pp. 78–113). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  62. Hyde, J. S. (1994). Understanding human sexuality. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.Google Scholar
  63. Klauer, T., Ferring, D., & Filipp, S. H. (1998). “Still stable after all this…?”: Temporal comparison in coping with severe and chronic disease. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 22, 339–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kobasa, S. C. (1979). Stressful life events, personality and health: An inquiry into hardiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Koestner, R., Losier, G. F., Vallerand, R. J., & Carducci, D. (1996). Identified and introjected forms of political internalization: Extending self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1025–1036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kuhl, J. (1984). Motivational aspects of achievement motivation and learned helplessness: Toward a comprehensive theory of action control. In B. A. Maher & W. B. MAHER (Eds.), Progress in experimental psychology research (Vol. 13, pp. 99–171). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  67. Kuhl, J., & Beckmann, J. (eds). (1985). Action control from cognition to behavior. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  68. Kuhl, J., & Fuhrmann, A. (1998). Decomposing self-regulation and self-control: The volitional components inventory. In J. Heckhausen & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulation across life-span (pp. 15–49). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lacković-Grgin, K. (1993). Socijalno-psihološke odrednice zadovoljstva životom žena srednje dobi (Socio-psychological determinants of life satisfaction among middle aged women), Radovi,Razdio FPSP, 31(8), 95–100.Google Scholar
  70. Lackovic´-Grgin, K. (1994). Psihološki značaj nezaposlenosti kod mladih visoke naobrazbe (Some Psychological Conseuences Of Unemployment Of Young Graduates). RADOVI-Razdio FPSP, 32(9), 73–85.Google Scholar
  71. Lacković-Grgin, K., & Padelin, P. (1995). Psihološko funkcioniranje starijih osoba smještenih u različitim uvjetima (The psychological functioning of elders living in different residential conditions). Radovi-Razdio FPSP, 33(10), 69–79.Google Scholar
  72. Lacković-Grgin, K., & Sorić, I. (1995). Self-esteem and loneliness of freshmen. VIIth European Conference on Developmental Psychology, Krakow: Book of abstracts.Google Scholar
  73. Lacković-Grgin, K., & Sorić, I. (1996). Prijelaz i prilagodba na studij: Jednogodišnje praćenje (Transition and Adjustment of Students to the University Environment: A one year follow-up study). RADOVI-Razdio FPSP, 34, 53–67.Google Scholar
  74. Lacković-Grgin, K., & Sorić, I. (1997). Korelati prilagodbe studiju tijekom prve godine (Correlates of adjustment to the university amongst first year students). Društvena istraživanja, 4–5(30–31), 461–475.Google Scholar
  75. Lacković-Grgin, K., Deković, M., Milosavljević, B., Cvek-Sorić, I., & Opačić, G. (1996). Social support and self-esteem in unemployed university graduates. Adolescence, 31, 701–707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lacković-Grgin, K., Deković, M., & Opačić, G. (1994). Pubertal status, interaction with significant others, and self-esteem of adolescent girls. Adolescence, 29, 691–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lacković-Grgin, K., Grgin, T., Sorić, I., & Penezić, Z. (1999). Personal control of development: Some correlates, sex, and age differences. VII European Congress of Psychology, Roma, Abstracts , pp. 246–247.Google Scholar
  78. Lacković-Grgin, K., Grgin, T., Penezić, Z., & Sorić, I. (2001). Some predictors of primary control of development in three transitional periods of life. Journal of Adult Psychology, 3, 149–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lacković-Grgin, K., Nekić, M., & Ćubela, V. (2002). Dobne specifičnosti integriteta s gledišta Eriksonove teorije psihosocijalnog razvoja (Age specificities of integrity from the point of view of Eriskon’s theory of psychosocial development). RADOVI-Razdio FPSP, 41(18), 45–68.Google Scholar
  80. Lerner, R. M. (1984). On the nature of human plasticity. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lerner, R. M. (1996). Relative plasticity, integration, temporality, and diversity in human development: A developmental contextual perspective about theory, process, and method. Developmental Psychology, 32, 781–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lerner, R. M., & Kauffman, M. B. (1985). The concept of development in contextualism. Developmental Review, 5, 309–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Levinson, D. J. (1986). The Seasons of a Man's Life. New York: Ballantine Books.Google Scholar
  84. Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social science. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  85. Liebkind, K. (1996). Acculturation and stress. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 27, 161–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lieberman, M. A., & Tobin, S. S. (1983). The Experience of Old Age. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  87. Little, B. R. (1983). Personal projects: A rationale and methods for investigation. Environment and Behavior, 15, 273–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Little, B. R. (1989). Personal projects analysis: Trivial pursuits, magnificent obsessions, and the search for coherence. In D. M. Buss & N. Cantor (Eds.), Personality psychology: Recent trends and direction (pp. 15–31). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  89. Magnuson, D., Stattin, H., & Allen, V. L. (1985). Biological maturation and social development: A longitudinal study of some adjustment processes from mid-adolescence to adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 14, 267–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Markus, H., & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41, 954–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Maslow, A. H. (1976). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  92. Ngyen, A. N., & Williams, H. L. (1989). Transition from East to West: Vietnamese adolescents and their parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 505–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nurmi, J. E., Salmela-Aro, K., & Routsalainen, H. (1994). Cognitive and attributional strategies among unemployed young adults: A case of failure – trap strategy. European Journal of Personality, 8, 135–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nurmi, J. E., Toivonen, S., Salmela-Aro, K., & Eronen, S. (1996). Optimistic approached-oriented, and avoidance strategies in social situations: Three studies on loneliness and peer relationships. European Journal of Personality, 10, 201–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Olson, B. D., & Evans, D. L. (1999). The role of the big five personality dimensions in the direction and affective consequences of everyday social comparisons. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1498–1508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Penezić, Z. (2004). Zadovoljstvo životom u adolescentnoj i odrasloj dobi: provjera teorije višestrukih diskrepancija (Life satisfaction in adolescence and adulthood: The role of multiple discrepancies). Doctoral thesis. University of Zagreb, Croatia.Google Scholar
  97. Penezić, Z., & Lacković-Grgin, K. (2001). Važnost razvojnih ciljeva u adolescentnoj, srednjoj i starijoj životnoj dobi (Importance of different developmental goals in adolescence, middle aged and older adults). RADOVI-Razdio FPSP, 40(17), 65–81.Google Scholar
  98. Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. New York: International University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Plomin, R. (1986). Development, genetics, and psychology. New York: International University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Pöhlman, K., & Brunstein, J. C. (1997). GOALS: Ein Fragebogen zur Messung von Lebenszielen. Diagnostica, 1, 63–79.Google Scholar
  101. Pulkkinen, L., Nurmi, J. E., & Kokko, K. (2002). Individual differences in personal goals in mid-thirties. In L. Pulkkinen & A. Caspi (Eds.), Paths to successful development-personality in the life course (pp. 331–353). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Pyszyrinski, T., Greenberg, J., & Solomon, S. (2000). Proximal and distal defense: A new perspective on unconscious motivation. Current Directions in Psychology Science, 5, 156–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  104. Rothbaum, F., Weisz, J. R., & Snyder, S. S. (1982). Changing the world and changing the self: A two-process model of perceived control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 5–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external locus of control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80, 609.Google Scholar
  106. Ryan, R. M. (1998). Commentary: Human psychological needs and the issues of volition, control, and outcome focus. In J. Heckhausen & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulation across life-span (pp. 114–137). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ryan, M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schmitt-Roderrmund, E., & Sibbereisen, R. K. (1999). Determinants of differential acculturation of development timetables among adolescent immigrants in Germany. International Journal of Psychology, 34, 219–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schulz, R., & Decker, S. (1985). Long-term adjustment to physical disability: The role of social support, perceived control, and self-blame. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1162–1172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Simonton, D. K. (1995). Greatness. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  111. Steinberg, L. (1988). Reciprocal relative between parent-child distance and pubertal maturation. Developmental Psychology, 24, 122–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Suls, J., & Mullen, B. (1982). From the cradle to the grave: Comparison and self-evaluation across the life-span. In J. Suls (Ed.), Psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 1, pp. 97–125). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Association, Inc.Google Scholar
  113. Swan, G. E., Dame, A., & Carmelli, D. (1991). Involuntary retirement, Type A behavior, and current functioning in elderly men: 24-year follow-up of the western collaborative group study. Psychology and Aging, 6, 384–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Taylor, S. E., & Lobel, M. (1989). Social comparisons activity under threat: Downward evaluation and upward contacts. Psychological Review, 96, 569–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Taylor, S. E., Wayment, H. A., & Carrilo, M. (1996). Social comparison, self-regulation and motivation. In R. M. Sorentino & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition (pp. 3–27). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  116. Trimko, C., & Moss, R. H. (1990). Determinants of interpersonal support and self-direction in group residential facilities. Journal of Gerontology, 45, 184–192.Google Scholar
  117. Warr, P. B., Jackson, P. R., & Banks, M. H. (1982). Duration of unemployment and psychological well-being in young men and women. Current Psychological Research, 2, 207–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wayment, H. A., & Taylor, C. E. (1995). Self-evaluation processes: Motives, information use and self-esteem. Journal of Personality, 63, 729–757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Weiner, B. (1972). Theories of motivation: From mechanism to cognition. Chicago, IL: Markham.Google Scholar
  120. Wills, T. A. (1981). Similarity and self-esteem in downward comparison. In J. Suls & T. A. Wills (Eds.), Social comparison: Contemporary theory and research (pp. 243–268). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  121. Wills, T. A. (1997). Modes and families of coping: An analysis of social comparison in the structure of other cognitive behavioral mechanisms. In B. P. Buunk & F. X. Gibbons (Eds.), Health, coping and well-being: Perspectives from social comparison theory (pp. 167–193). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  122. Wilson, A. E., & Ross, M. (2000). The frequency of temporal and social comparison in people’s personal appraisals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 928–942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wood, J. V., Taylor, S. E., & Lichtman, R. R. (1985). Social comparison in adjustment to breast cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 1169–1183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of ZadarZadarThe People’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations