Stromal Cells and Tumor Milieu: PDGF et al.
Initiation of the desmoplastic reaction associated with cancer depends on PDGF (Shao et al., 2000). Similarly, PDGF is one of the most potent chemoattractants and activators of fibroblasts, stimulating their differentiation into myofibroblasts, which represent a prominent stromal cell type in carcinomas. Although a translocation resulting in a fusion product between PDGF and COL1A (which encodes type I collagen) is associated with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, no mutations in either members of the PDGF family or their receptors have been identified in carcinomas. However, aberrant PDGF signaling has been observed in carcinomas where it promotes desmoplasia and tumor progression (reviewed by Tejada et al.,2006), due to increased secretion of PDGF by tumor cells and/or higher levels of expression of PDGF receptors on stromal fibroblasts (Ebert et al., 1995). In the following chapter, we discuss the fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition and how stromal cells may impact tumor evolution.
KeywordsStromal Cell Tumor Microenvironment Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Stress Fiber Stromal Fibroblast
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